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Where have we been, where are we now, and where are we going? Graham Davies.

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Presentation on theme: "Where have we been, where are we now, and where are we going? Graham Davies."— Presentation transcript:

1 Where have we been, where are we now, and where are we going? Graham Davies

2 September 2010EUROCALL Bordeaux2 Why look back? Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it. George Santayana (1863-1952) The Life of Reason, Volume 1, 1905.

3 September 2010EUROCALL Bordeaux3 Monsters from the past (1)

4 September 2010EUROCALL Bordeaux4 Monsters from the past (2) Graham, 1984: Hair was in at this time!

5 September 2010EUROCALL Bordeaux5 The ICT4LT website and blog Created with the aid of European Commission funding, 1999-2000. Regularly updated: Details of all bibliographical references in this slideshow can be found in the Resources Centre at the ICT4LT site. Resources Centre

6 September 2010EUROCALL Bordeaux6 Some personal landmarks 1976: I began using a computer. 1979: I wrote my first CALL program. 1980: I bought my first computer. 1985: I sent my first email. 1994: I began to use the Web. 2007: I created my first blog. 2007: I began to use Second Life.

7 September 2010EUROCALL Bordeaux7 Landmarks in the history of CALL 1980: First conference on CALL: Polytechnic of Central London. 1982: CALICO founded. 1986: EUROCALL set up as an informal group of CALL enthusiasts. 1993: EUROCALL established as a formal professional association. History of EUROCALL

8 September 2010EUROCALL Bordeaux8 Histories of CALL Sanders R. (ed.) (1995) Thirty years of Computer Assisted Language Instruction CALICO Journal 12, 4. Davies G. (1997) Lessons from the past, lessons for the future: 20 years of CALL. Delcloque (2000) History of CALL ICT4LT Module 1.4, Section 2.

9 September 2010EUROCALL Bordeaux9 CALL typology and phases ICT4LT Module 1.4, Section 3 Warschauer (1996) Behaviouristic, Communicative, Integrative. Bax (2003) Restricted, Open, Integrated.

10 September 2010EUROCALL Bordeaux10 Dynamic obsolescence Coren A. (1976) The sanity inspector: A number of my contemporaries actually chose to go into the Foreign Office: if they read Arabic at university, they were swooped on by Whitehall and sent to Japan; if they read Japanese, they were sent on a special FO training course to learn German, and subsequently placed in Kampala; if their predilection and brilliance were commercial, they were given posts where political expertise was the sole requirement; if they were geographers, they were despatched to found hospitals or advise on fowl pest. In short, as soon as they had completed the long and arduous process of learning something, it was no longer required. They were in a state of permanent dynamic obsolescence.

11 September 2010EUROCALL Bordeaux11 Disruptive technologies Christensen C. (1997) The innovator's dilemma: "A disruptive technology is a new technological innovation, product, or service that eventually overturns the existing dominant technology in the market, despite the fact that the disruptive technology is both radically different from the leading technology and that it often initially performs worse than the leading technology according to existing measures of performance."

12 September 2010EUROCALL Bordeaux12 1970s: Prime 300

13 September 2010EUROCALL Bordeaux13 1985: Clef - semi-intelligent CALL Web link Web link

14 September 2010EUROCALL Bordeaux14 1980s-1990s: Simulations Montevidisco, 1983 Granville, 1986 London Adventure, 1986 EXPODISC, 1990 A la rencontre de Philippe, 1993

15 September 2010EUROCALL Bordeaux15 1986: Granville, Cambridge University Press

16 September 2010EUROCALL Bordeaux16 1992: Just grandma and me YouTube link YouTube link

17 September 2010EUROCALL Bordeaux17 1993: The tortoise and the hare YouTube link YouTube link

18 September 2010EUROCALL Bordeaux18 1993: The new kid on the block

19 September 2010EUROCALL Bordeaux19 1995: Who is Oscar Lake? Web link Web link

20 September 2010EUROCALL Bordeaux20 1997: Encounters Web link Web link

21 September 2010EUROCALL Bordeaux21 1993: The Web See ICT4LT Module 1.5, Section 2 EUROCALL 93, Hull: no Web EUROCALL 94, Karlsruhe: some Web EUROCALL 95, Valencia: more Web Now: Web 2.0 - nothing but the Web!

22 September 2010EUROCALL Bordeaux22 2002: German Steps, BBC Web link Web link

23 September 2010EUROCALL Bordeaux23 2000s: Web 2.0 ICT4LT Module 1.5, Section 2.1 Image storage and sharing Social bookmarking Discussion lists, blogs, wikis, social networking Chat rooms MUDs, MOOs and MUVEs Podcasting Video sharing Animation tools - comic strips, movies

24 September 2010EUROCALL Bordeaux24 Virtual worlds ICT4LT Module 1.5, Section 14.2.1 Davies G. (2009) Virtual worlds: a brief history. Preface to Molka-Danielsen & Deutschmann Randall Sadler, Background on virtual worldsBackground on virtual worlds Colossal Cave Adventure, 1976 Multi-User Dungeon, 1978 Habitat by Lucasfilm, 1986Habitat by Lucasfilm Active Worlds, 1995 Traveler, 1996 Second Life, 2003

25 September 2010EUROCALL Bordeaux25 Tour of the EUROCALL HQ in SL YouTube link YouTube link

26 September 2010EUROCALL Bordeaux26 Where are we going?

27 September 2010EUROCALL Bordeaux27 Predicting the future Sam Goldwyn, Founder of MGM: I never prophesy – especially about the future.

28 September 2010EUROCALL Bordeaux28 Historic blunders Telephone: This 'telephone' has too many shortcomings to be seriously considered as a means of communication. The device is inherently of no value to us. Western Union internal memo, 1876. Radio: The wireless music box has no imaginable commercial value. Who would pay for a message sent to nobody in particular? Anonymous associates in response to David Sarnoff, Founder of RCA, urging for investment in the radio in the 1920s. Computer: I think there is a world market for maybe five computers. Thomas Watson, Founder of IBM, 1943.

29 September 2010EUROCALL Bordeaux29 1954 vision of a home computer

30 September 2010EUROCALL Bordeaux30 Fooled you! The picture on the last slide is a spoof. It was created by Troels Eklund Andersen, a Danish technical support technician. He started with a picture of a mock submarine manoeuvring room, added an old TV hanging on the wall, a 1970's teletype, and threw in a picture of a hardware store owner from Ohio.

31 September 2010EUROCALL Bordeaux31 What is normal for you? Using email and the Web to keep in touch with people Online shopping Online banking Checking train timetables Booking flight tickets Making hotel reservations Checking on the weather Keeping up with the news Using the Web as a library Sending birthday cards via the Web Ordering our milk and paying our milkman online

32 September 2010EUROCALL Bordeaux32 10 things that became obsolete in the last decade 1.Dial-up modems 2.35mm film 3.Printed maps 4.Audiocassettes and videocassettes 5.Audio CDs 6.Public payphones 7.Fax 8.Backing up data on floppies or CDs 9.Receiving printed bills by post 10.Losing touch with friends and relatives

33 September 2010EUROCALL Bordeaux33 The Gartner hype cycle

34 September 2010EUROCALL Bordeaux34 Enter the smartphone

35 September 2010EUROCALL Bordeaux35 Small is beautiful Shield & Kukulska-Hulme (2008) Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL), ReCALL Special Issue: 20, 3. Wired Magazine, 17 August 2010: The Web is dead. Long live the Internet:

36 September 2010EUROCALL Bordeaux36 The future is 3D: BBC Virtual Revolution Web link Web link

37 September 2010EUROCALL Bordeaux37 Shared media at the EUROCALL HQ in SL YouTube link YouTube link

38 September 2010EUROCALL Bordeaux38 What lessons have we learned? Levy (1997) Davies (1997) Decoo (2001) Felix (2003)

39 September 2010EUROCALL Bordeaux39 Levy (1997) Computer Assisted Language Learning: context and conceptualization (1997) Data Driven Learning was the only new approach to language teaching that was cited by survey respondents as a direct result of the attributes of the computer. In other words, this approach has been conceived with the computer in mind. Total Cloze (Storyboard, Fun with Texts) could also have been mentioned.

40 September 2010EUROCALL Bordeaux40 Davies (1997) Lessons from the past, lessons for the future: 20 years of CALL (1997) Dont regard technology as the panacea. Learn from the past. Dont neglect training in using new technologies. Choose hardware and software that will last a few years. Open up to new ideas. Use your imagination.

41 September 2010EUROCALL Bordeaux41 Decoo (2001) On the mortality of language learning methods (2001) A methodology is quite short-lived - roughly equivalent to the average career span of a teacher. Publishers of ICT materials tend to follow the current methodology.

42 September 2010EUROCALL Bordeaux42 Felix (2003) Teaching languages online: deconstructing the myths (2003) Saves time – no. Saves money – no. Saves staff – no. Its a more effective way of learning - maybe?

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