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Holt Algebra 1 12-3 Simplifying Rational Expressions Warm Up Simplify each expression. 1. 2. Factor each expression. 3. x 2 + 5x + 64. 4x 2 – 64 (x + 2)(x + 3) 5. 2x 2 + 3x + 16. 9x 2 + 60x + 100 (2x + 1)(x + 1) 4(x + 4)(x – 4) (3x +10) 2

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Holt Algebra 1 12-3 Simplifying Rational Expressions 12-3Simplifying Rational Expressions Holt Algebra 1

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12-3 Simplifying Rational Expressions A rational expression is an algebraic expression whose numerator and denominator are polynomials. The value of the polynomial expression in the denominator cannot be zero since division by zero is undefined. This means that rational expressions may have excluded values.

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Holt Algebra 1 12-3 Simplifying Rational Expressions Example 1A: Identifying Excluded Values Find any excluded values of each rational expression. g + 4 = 0 g = –4 The excluded value is –4. Set the denominator equal to 0. Solve for g by subtracting 4 from each side.

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Holt Algebra 1 12-3 Simplifying Rational Expressions Example 1B: Identifying Excluded Values Find any excluded values of each rational expression. x 2 – 15x = 0 x(x – 15) = 0 x = 0 or x – 15 = 0 x = 15 Set the denominator equal to 0. Factor. Use the Zero Product Property. Solve for x. The excluded values are 0 and 15.

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Holt Algebra 1 12-3 Simplifying Rational Expressions Example 1C: Identifying Excluded Values Find any excluded values of each rational expression. y 2 + 5y + 4 = 0 (y + 4)(y + 1) = 0 y + 4 = 0 or y + 1 = 0 y = –4 or y = –1 The excluded values are –4 and –1. Set the denominator equal to 0. Factor Use the Zero Product Property. Solve each equation for y.

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Holt Algebra 1 12-3 Simplifying Rational Expressions Check It Out! Example 1a Find any excluded values of each rational expression. t + 5 = 0 t = –5 The excluded value is –5. Set the denominator equal to 0. Solve for t by subtracting 5 from each side.

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Holt Algebra 1 12-3 Simplifying Rational Expressions Example 2A: Simplifying Rational Expressions Simplify each rational expression, if possible. Identify any excluded values. Factor 14. Divide out common factors. Note that if r = 0, the expression is undefined. Simplify. The excluded value is 0. 4

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Holt Algebra 1 12-3 Simplifying Rational Expressions Example 2B: Simplifying Rational Expressions Simplify each rational expression, if possible. Identify any excluded values. 3n; n ≠ Factor 6n² + 3n. Divide out common factors. Note that if n =, the expression is undefined. Simplify. The excluded value is.

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Holt Algebra 1 12-3 Simplifying Rational Expressions Example 2C: Simplifying Rational Expressions Simplify each rational expression, if possible. Identify any excluded values. 3p – 2 = 0 3p = 2 There are no common factors. Add 2 to both sides. Divide both sides by 3. The excluded value is

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Holt Algebra 1 12-3 Simplifying Rational Expressions Check It Out! Example 2a Simplify each rational expression, if possible. Identify any excluded values. Factor 15. Divide out common factors. Note that if m = 0, the expression is undefined. Simplify. The excluded value is 0.

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Holt Algebra 1 12-3 Simplifying Rational Expressions Check It Out! Example 2b Simplify each rational expression, if possible. Identify any excluded values. Factor the numerator. Divide out common factors. Note that the expression is not undefined. Simplify. There is no excluded value.

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Holt Algebra 1 12-3 Simplifying Rational Expressions Check It Out! Example 2c Simplify each rational expression, if possible. Identify any excluded values. The numerator and denominator have no common factors. The excluded value is 2.

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Holt Algebra 1 12-3 Simplifying Rational Expressions Example 3: Simplifying Rational Expressions with Trinomials Simplify each rational expression, if possible. Factor the numerator and the denominator when possible. Divide out common factors. Simplify. A.B.

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Holt Algebra 1 12-3 Simplifying Rational Expressions Recall from Chapter 8 that opposite binomials can help you factor polynomials. Recognizing opposite binomials can also help you simplify rational expressions. Consider The numerator and denominator are opposite binomials. Therefore,

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Holt Algebra 1 12-3 Simplifying Rational Expressions Example 4: Simplifying Rational Expressions Using Opposite Binomials Simplify each rational expression, if possible. Factor. Rewrite one opposite binomial. Identify opposite binomials. A.B.

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Holt Algebra 1 12-3 Simplifying Rational Expressions Example 4 Continued Simplify each rational expression, if possible. Divide out common factors. Simplify.

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Holt Algebra 1 12-3 Simplifying Rational Expressions Check It Out! Example 4 Continued Simplify each rational expression, if possible. Factor. Divide out common factors. c.

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Holt Algebra 1 12-3 Simplifying Rational Expressions Lesson Quiz: Part I Find any excluded values of each rational expression. 1. 2. 0 0, 2 Simplify each rational expression, if possible. 3.4. 5.

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Holt Algebra 1 12-3 Simplifying Rational Expressions Lesson Quiz: Part II 6. Calvino is building a rectangular tree house. The length is 10 feet longer than the width. His friend Fabio is also building a tree house, but his is square. The sides of Fabio’s tree house are equal to the width of Calvino’s tree house. a. What is the ratio of the area of Calvino’s tree house to the area of Fabio’s tree house? b. Use this ratio to find the ratio of the areas if the width of Calvino’s tree house is 14 feet.

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