Presentation on theme: "1 PowerPoint slides by R. Dennis Middlemist, Professor of Management, Colorado State University."— Presentation transcript:
1 PowerPoint slides by R. Dennis Middlemist, Professor of Management, Colorado State University
Chapter 7 Cross-Cultural Communication and Negotiation The specific objectives of this chapter are: 1. DEFINE the term communication, examine some examples of verbal communication styles, and explain the importance of message interpretation. 2. ANALYZE the common downward and upward communication flows used in international communication. 3. EXAMINE the language, perception, and culture of communication, and nonverbal barriers to effective international communications.
Chapter 7 Cross-Cultural Communication and Negotiation 4. PRESENT the steps that can be taken to overcome international communication problems. 5. 5. DEVELOP approaches to international negotiations that respond to differences in culture. 6. REVIEW different negotiating and bargaining behaviors that may improve negotiations and outcomes. The specific objectives of this chapter are:
4 Communication Process and Verbal Communication Styles Communication The process of transferring meanings from sender to receiver See Diagram Verbal communication styles Role of context in communication: High or Low Indirect and Direct Styles Succinct vs. Exacting vs.Elaborate Contextual and Personal Styles
5 Context: What is it? Context is information that surrounds a communication and helps convey the message. High-Context Societies Messages are often highly coded and implicit, such as Japan and many Arab countries (implicit = implied but not said directly) Low Context Societies The message is explicit and the speaker says precisely what he or she means such as the United States and Canada
6 High Context Less verbally explicit communication, less written/formal information More internalized understandings of what is communicated Long term relationships Strong boundaries- who is accepted as belonging vs who is considered an "outsider" Knowledge is situational, relational. Decisions and activities focus around personal face-to- face relationships, often around a central person who has authority.
7 Low Context Rule oriented, people play by external rules More knowledge is codified, public, external, and accessible. Sequencing, separation--of time, of space, of activities, of relationships More interpersonal connections of shorter duration Knowledge is more often transferable Task-centered. Decisions and activities focus around what needs to be done, division of responsibilities.
8 Ways that High and Low Context Differ The Structure of Relationships High: Dense, intersecting networks and longterm relationships, strong boundaries, relationship more important than task Low: Loose, wide networks, shorter term, compartmentalized relationships, task more important than relationship Main Type of Cultural Knowledge High: More knowledge is below the waterline--implicit, patterns that are not fully conscious, hard to explain even if you are a member of that culturebelow the waterline Low: More knowledge is above the waterline--explicit, consciously organizedabove the waterline
9 Entering High and Low Context Situations High contexts can be difficult to enter if you are an outsider (because you don't carry the context information internally, and because you can't instantly create close relationships). Low contexts are relatively easy to enter if you are an outsider (because the environment contains much of the information you need to participate, and because can you form relationships fairly soon, and because the important thing is accomplishing a task rather than feeling your way into a relationship).
10 Explicit and Implicit Communication High-context/implicit communication cultures Low-context/explicit communication cultures Germans Swiss Germans Scandinavians North Americans French English Italians Latin Americans Arabs Japanese Adapted from Figure 7–1: Explicit/Implicit Communication: An International Comparison
11 Communication Process and Verbal Communication Styles Indirect and direct styles In high-context cultures, messages are implicit and indirect Voice intonation, timing, and facial expressions play important roles in conveying information In low-context cultures, people often meet only to accomplish objectives and tend to be direct and focused in their communications Verbal communication styles
12 Communication Process and Verbal Communication Styles Elaborate and succinct styles Three degrees of communication quantity— elaborate, exacting, and succinct. The elaborating style is more popular in high-context cultures that have a moderate degree of uncertainty avoidance The exacting style focuses on precision and the use of the right amount of words to convey the message and is more common in low-context, low-uncertainty-avoidance cultures The succinct style is more common in high-context cultures with considerable uncertainty avoidance where people tend to say few words and allow understatements, pauses, and silence to convey meaning. Verbal communication styles (continued)
13 Communication Process and Verbal Communication Styles Contextual and personal styles Contextual style is one that focuses on the speaker and relationship of the parties Contextual style is often associated with high- powerdistance, collective, high-context cultures Personal style focuses on the speaker and the reduction of barriers between the parties Personal style is more popular in low-power-distance, individualistic, low-context cultures Verbal communication styles (continued)
14 Table 7–1 Major Characteristics of Verbal Styles Phases of Multicultural Development Adapted from Table 7–1: Major Characteristics of Verbal Styles Indirect vs. direct Indirect Direct Implicit messages Explicit messages Collective, high context Individualistic, low context Succinct vs. elaborate ElaborateHigh quantity of talk Moderate uncertainty avoidance, high context ExactingModerate amount of talk Low uncertainty avoidance, low context SuccinctLow amount of talkHigh uncertainty avoidance, high context Cultures in Which Major Interaction Focus Characteristic It Verbal Style Variation and Content Is Found
15 Table 7–1 Major Characteristics of Verbal Styles Phases of Multicultural Development Cultures in Which Major Interaction Focus Characteristic It Verbal Style Variation and Content Is Found Adapted from Table 7–1: Major Characteristics of Verbal Styles Contextual vs. personal ContextualFocus is on the speaker and role relationships High power distance, collective, high context PersonalFocus is on the speaker and personal relationships Low power distance, individualistic, low context
17 Nonverbal Communication Nonverbal communication The transfer of meaning through means such as body language and use of physical space Kinesics The study of communication through body movement and facial expression Eye contact Posture Gestures Chromatics The use of color to communicate messages
18 Nonverbal Communication Proxemics The study of the way that people use physical space to convey messages Intimate distance is used for very confidential communications Personal distance is used for talking with family and close friends Social distance is used to handle most business transactions Public distance is used when calling across the room or giving a talk to a group
19 Personal Space in the U.S. Intimate distance18” Personal distance18” to 4’ Social distance4’ to 8’ Public distance8’ to 10’ Adapted from Figure 7–3: Personal Space Categories for Those in the United States
20 Nonverbal Communication Chronemics Monochronic time schedule Things are done in a linear fashion. Manager addresses Issue A first and then moves on to Issue B Time schedules are very important and time is viewed as something that can be controlled and should be used wisely Polychronic time schedules People tend to do several things at the same time People place higher value on personal involvement than on getting things done on time Schedules are subordinated to personal relationships