Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Chapter 16 DC Generators.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Chapter 16 DC Generators."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 16 DC Generators

2 Objectives After studying this chapter, you will be able to:
Explain the theory of electromagnetic induction Describe the basic operation of the AC generator Describe the construction and operation of various types of DC generators

3 Objectives (cont’d.) Describe the uses and operating characteristics of various types of DC generators Discuss the methods of connecting DC generators and the basic troubleshooting procedures

4 Electromagnetic Induction
Takes place when a conductor moves across a magnetic field or when a magnetic field moves across a conductor Electromotive force induced in the conductor Direction of emf determined by using left hand rule for a generator

5 Generator Construction
Basic generator Consists of a permanent magnet mounted on a frame (yoke) Coil of insulated wire mounted on iron core (rotor or armature) is positioned between magnet poles Armature rotates through magnetic field

6 Generator Construction (cont’d.)
Amount of emf produced depends on Strength of main field flux Number of loops of wire on armature Angle at which armature coils move across lines of force (right angles produce most voltage) Speed of coil rotation

7 Generator Construction (cont’d.)
All rotating generators produce an alternating emf Armature construction Two types of windings: lap and wave winding Lap winding is used to obtain high current capacity Wave winding is used to obtain high voltage output

8 Generator Construction (cont’d.)

9 Generator Construction (cont’d.)
Core is made of soft iron or steel disks called laminations Disks are dipped in insulating varnish and mounted on the rotor shaft Armature core slots are lined with insulation called fish paper Commutator made of copper segments

10 Generator Construction (cont’d.)
Brushes Connect the commutator to load conductors Made of graphite and carbon Frame and field poles Field cores are attached to the frame which provides support and forms part of circuit Field coils wound with cotton covered wire with a baked enamel insulation

11 Generator Construction (cont’d.)
Field excitation In all generators field flux is produced by current flowing in coils placed on the field cores Except magnetos Separately excited generator Field is excited from a separate source Self-excited generator Current is obtained from machine’s own armature

12 Generator Operation Effect of armature current Neutral plane
Armature reaction results when main field is distorted as a result of the interaction between the two fields Neutral plane When the armature coils are moving parallel with the lines of force Moving through the neutral plane No emf is induced

13 Generator Operation (cont’d.)
Armature self-induction When current increases, magnetic field increases, expands and moves across coil loops, inducing an emf into the coil Voltage of self-induction opposite to the applied voltage Interpoles (commutating poles) Method of adjustment to changing loads

14 Generator Operation (cont’d.)
Compensating for armature reaction Compensating windings placed in main pole faces to eliminate armature reaction Other effects of armature current Magnetomotive force that opposes the main field flux is produced, decreasing the generated emf Reversed torque developed in the rotor

15 Generator Voltage Equation used for average emf produced by a generator

16 Generator Voltage (cont’d.)
Saturation curve Beyond a certain number of ampere-turns, all electromagnets become saturated Near saturation point Large increase in current causes only a slight increase in voltage

17 Self-Excited Generator
Three types: shunt, series and compound Difference is how the armature and field windings are connected Self-excited generator may fail to build up a voltage, causes include Loss of residual magnetism Break or opening in the field Loose brush connections or contacts

18 Self-Excited Generator (cont’d.)
Shunt generators Field and armature connected in parallel Series generators Field connected in series with the armature Compound generators Combines certain features of shunt and series generators into one machine Better for varying loads

19 Separately Excited Generator
Magnetization current for field coils is supplied externally From DC generator, batteries or rectifier Field current is independent of armature emf Field flux is less affected by load changes than in the self-excited generator High cost and large physical size

20 Voltage Control Versus Voltage Regulation
Voltage regulation determined by machine design How well the generator maintains constant output voltage under changes in load Voltage control takes place outside the generator Rheostat controls the current through the shunt field

21 Parallel Operation of Generators
Shunt generators in parallel

22 Parallel Operation of Generators (cont’d.)
Compound generators in parallel

23 Generator Efficiency Three major losses: mechanical, electrical and magnetic Mechanical losses Friction at bearings and between brushes and commutator, and winding losses Electrical losses Resistance of the field and armature conductors

24 Generator Efficiency (cont’d.)
Magnetic losses Reluctance in the magnetic circuit: eddy currents and hysteresis Hysteresis can be reduced by selecting core materials with good permeability

25 Summary A generator is constructed of a magnet, yoke, coil, and core (armature) Shunt, series and compound generators are types of self-excited generators A separately-excited generator is less impacted by load changes than a self-excited generator Armature current affects the voltage

26 Summary (cont’d.) Generator voltage may reach a saturation point in which large increases in current produce only small increases in voltage Generators may be connected in parallel to increase the generated voltage Generator efficiency is influenced by mechanical, electrical and magnetic losses

Download ppt "Chapter 16 DC Generators."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google