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Kingdoms and Domains By: Brittnie, Candelaria, Kevin, and John.

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1 Kingdoms and Domains By: Brittnie, Candelaria, Kevin, and John

2 o During Linnaeus’s time science was simple among the differences of living things. There were only the Animalia and Plantae kingdoms o Later on biologists found that there were microorganisms like bacterium from plants and animals. Soon scientists knew that microorganisms had to be from their own kingdom that they called Protista o Then, mushrooms and mold from plants ended up having a kingdom of their own called Fungi. o Later scientists realized some bacteria lacked nuclei like mitochondria and chloroplasts. So they have a kingdom called Monera

3 T HE M ONERA KINGDOM o Later on biologists found that in the Monera group the microorganisms were in 2 distinct groups so the Monera kingdom became 2 separate kingdoms Eubacteria Archaebacteria Monera EubacteriaArchaebacteria

4 The Three Domain System Using a molecular clock model, scientists grouped modern organisms according to how long they have been evolving independently. Molecular analysis has led to a new taxonomic category called a Domain - a more inclusive category than any other, it is on level higher than a kingdom.

5 o There are 3 Domains Eukarya- composed of protists, fungi, plants, and animals. Bacteria- corresponds to the kingdom Eubacteria Archaea- corresponds to the kingdom Archaebacteria When scientists find new info about organisms in the domains Bacteria and Archaea, these domains may be subdivided into additional kingdoms. Modern classification = rapidly changing science

6 o In these three domains there are 6 kingdoms Eubacteria Archaebacteria Protista Fungi Plantae Animalia

7 The domain Bacteria o Includes only the Eubacteria kingdom o The members of the domain bacteria are unicellular and prokaryotic o The cell walls contain peptidoglycan o Most of the cells are different Some cells are photosynthesized while others are not Some need oxygen to survive while others are killed by oxygen

8 o Includes only the Archaebacteria kingdom o Members of the domain Archaea are also unicellular and prokaryotic. o The cell walls do not contain peptidoglycan and the cell membranes contain unusual lipids o Most cells are similar Many can only survive with absence of oxygen They live in extreme environments o Ex. Volcanic hot spring

9 o Includes the four remaining kingdoms Protista Fungi Plantae Animalia o All organisms are eukaryotes (have a nucleus)

10 ProtistaFungi o Kingdom composed of unicellular organisms Some are autotrophs and some are heterotrophs o Kingdom composed mostly of multicellular organisms  Ex. Mushrooms  a unicellular organism is yeast All are heterotrophs but are different from other heterotrophs. They secrete digestive enzymes into their food and absorb the smaller food molecules into their bodies. Most feed on dead or decaying organic matter Have cell walls of chitin

11 PlantaeAnimalia o Kingdom composed of photosynthetic multicellular organisms  Ex. Cone-bearing and flowering plants as well as mosses and ferns All are autotrophs Most plants are nonmotile (cannot move) and their cells have cell walls containing cellulose o Kingdom composed of multicellular organisms All are heterotrophs Most animals can move and cells lack cell walls

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