Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

The Federal Court System

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "The Federal Court System"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Federal Court System
Ch 18

2 The Basis for the Courts
Article III established the supreme court, while the same time allowing Congress to establish inferior (lesser) courts. Additionally, its important to remember that we have two different court systems in this country; Federal and State courts.

3 Two Types of Federal Courts
Congress has established two types of Federal Courts: Constitutional Courts Special Courts Supreme Court Inferior Courts Constitutional Courts Special Courts

4 The Constitutional Courts
This includes: -Court of Appeals (12) -District Courts (94) -Court of International Trade These are known as the Regular or Article III Courts

5 Special Courts Special Courts have been created to deal with powers expressed in Article I. The range of cases is much more narrow. Special Courts include: -Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces -Court of Appeals for Veterans Claims -Federal Claims Court -Tax Court -Courts of the District of Columbia -Territorial Courts

6 Federal Court Jurisdiction
Jurisdiction: authority to hear a case. Federal courts get to hear cases due to two criteria. 1) Subject matter 2) Parties involved If not in the jurisdiction of Federal Courts, its in the jurisdiction of State Courts.

7 Types of Jurisdiction The type of jurisdiction depends on a few criteria: 1)Whether they share power to hear the case with State Courts or not 2)Whether they are the first Court to hear the case Exclusive Jurisdiction: case can only be heard in Federal Court Concurrent Jurisdiction: case can be heard in either Federal or State Court Plaintiff-Person filing suit Defendant-Person who the complaint is against

8 Original vs Appellate Jurisdiction
Original Jurisdiction: Court where case is first heard Appellate Jurisdiction: A Court that hears a case on appeal (after original jurisdiction)

9 Appointment of Judges Judges are appointed by the President with Senate confirmation. Senatorial Courtesy is also generally followed. While the Courts are supposed to be bipartisan, selections may lean towards the party of power (Especial with the Supreme Court nominees)

10 The Judicial System and Public Policy
Hearing and ruling on cases has the potential to change public policy. This leads to the two different outlooks and mentalities for Judges. Restraint vs Activism

11 Judicial Restraint Judicial Restraint: the belief that judges should always try to decide cases on the basis of (1) original intent of those who wrote the constitution and (2) precedent, that is rulings in line with previous decisions This line of thinking believes judges should not be changing or setting law through their decisions

12 Judicial Activism Judicial Activism is the belief that judges should act more boldly; decisions can be interpreted to reflect values and feelings of a changing society.

13 Terms and Pay Federal Judges are appointed for life, only being removed through the impeachment process. Judges appointed to the Special Courts do not, however get that luxury. Congress sets their pay, if they wish to retire at 70 (with at least 10 years of service) they will receive a full pension.

14 Court Officers Magistrates are appointed to assist Judges.
They issue warrants, hear evidence, and set bail. Other Officers -Bankruptcy Judge -District Attorneys -Marshals

15 The Inferior Courts A majority (80%) of federal cases are heard in District courts. There are 89 Districts in place. They have original jurisdiction over federal cases. They can hear two types of cases: -Criminal: meaning a federal law has been broken. -Civil: a noncriminal dispute has occurred.

16 Court of Appeals If an appeal from District Court occurs it goes to the Court of Appeals (12 in total) Appellate Judges tend to look at cases with a panel of three judges, however “en banc” can occur, which means all judges assigned to a circuit would attend Appeal Courts only have appellate jurisdiction. Their verdicts are final, unless the Supreme Court chooses to hear the case.

17 Supreme Court The power of the Supreme Court comes from Judicial Review: the ability to rule on the constitutionality of public policy. Judicial Review was born out of the case Marbury V Madison (1803) Judicial Review occurs because: The Constitution is supreme law of the land All legislative acts or measures are secondary to it Judges are sworn to enforce the provisions of the constitution.

18 Jurisdiction of the Supreme Court
This Court has both Original and Appellate Jurisdiction. The two cases in which they must have original jurisdiction: -Those in which a State is party -Those affecting ambassadors or other public consuls In other cases they can choose to take on original jurisdiction.

19 How does a case reach the Court?
The rule of four is used. “Writ of Certiorari”-meaning the court calls for the record of a case from a lower court. Certificate- where a lower court requests that the high court look at a case for a specific reason or question. The court convenes to hear arguments, read briefs, and hold conference.

20 Opinions of the Court When a case is finally decided, a written opinion must be produced. It is written by a justice from the majority side. Majority Opinion-The courts official standing on a case Precedents-example to be followed in similar cases Concurring Opinion-To add or emphasize a point not written in the Majority Opinion Dissenting Opinion- Opinion of a Justice in the minority side of case. Allows them to speak their mind and leaves ideas in the event that the court reconsiders the matter on a different case.

Download ppt "The Federal Court System"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google