Presentation on theme: "McGraw-Hill/Irwin 2010 Modified by Jackie Kroening 2011 PEOPLE, GROUPS, AND THEIR LEADERS Chapter 8."— Presentation transcript:
McGraw-Hill/Irwin 2010 Modified by Jackie Kroening 2011 PEOPLE, GROUPS, AND THEIR LEADERS Chapter 8
Parts taken from Human Relations 4ed Why Do People Join Groups Formal group is a group governed by the formal structure of an organization. Informal group is a group formed around common interests, habits, and personality traits. People join groups to fulfill needs that cannot be fulfilled when acting alone. ***An unconscious goal that is always present in group members is the need to belong. Needs include affiliation, attraction, activities, assistance, and proximity.
Parts taken from Human Relations 4ed What Makes a Group All groups have certain qualities in common. Interaction with other members on either an individual or network basis. Share common goals (values). Unspoken or formal rules and norms (values system). Stable role relationships. Subgroups to interact with a larger group while maintaining an identity of their own. ** Members don't necessarily have the final say about their membership
Parts taken from Human Relations 4ed Formal Groups and Their Development The development of any group, focuses on two behaviors of the group: Task activity The assignment of tasks to get a job done. Group process The way group members deal with one another while working on a task.
Parts taken from Human Relations 4ed Four stages in group development: Forming Members take a close look at their task, adjust themselves to the expected behaviors, and begin accepting one another. Redefining Members re-examine the task as a group problem. Formal Groups and Their Development
Parts taken from Human Relations 4ed Four stages in group development (cont.): Coordinating Group starts collecting information and translating it into group objectives. Formalizing Group works smoothly in its roles and accomplishes its objectives. Member assertiveness plays an important role in allowing the group to form and evolve realistically. Formal Groups and Their Development
Parts taken from Human Relations 4ed Status and Conformity in Groups ** Status is the rank an individual holds within a group. Degree of status acceptance affects the total performance of the group. ** Norm: Conformity means acting in coordination and agreement with one’s group. Groupthink results from group members agreeing with one another because of time pressure, stress, and low collective self-esteem. ** Groupthink is an ugly side of conformity that always results in bad decisions
Parts taken from Human Relations 4ed Informal Groups Basic qualities in informal groups: They fulfill the needs of members. They are necessary to an organization and help the overall operation of a company. They are likely to change as people and relationships change. They are not affected by formal boundaries.
Parts taken from Human Relations 4ed Barriers to Group Effectiveness ** Effectiveness of a group is determined by each member's understanding and following of the rules of behavior ** Bad decisions that come out of groupthink Those resulting from believing too much in the great worth and status of the group. Those leading to closed-mindedness. Those that have to do with too much pressure for conformity.
Parts taken from Human Relations 4ed Solutions to group effectiveness barriers Changing ineffective norms. Identifying problems. Improving the composition of the group. Barriers to Group Effectiveness
Parts taken from Human Relations 4ed Hidden agendas ** Secret wishes, hopes, desires, and assumptions hidden from the group. People often try to accomplish hidden agendas while pretending to care about the group goals. Passive aggression Barriers to Group Effectiveness
Parts taken from Human Relations 4ed Leadership: What it is and What it Requires Leadership is the ability to influence people towards the attainment of goals of an organization. Leadership versus management Managers follow the rules and go through the motions, while leaders have the real power in an organization and creates the vision on what the organization wants to be.
Parts taken from Human Relations 4ed Leadership: What it is and What it Requires Controversy surrounds the issue of what exactly makes a leader effective Some argue that leaders are born with traits that make them effective. Others argue that leaders have mastered different sets of skills.
Parts taken from Human Relations 4ed Leadership Styles Autocratic leaders make all decisions and use authority and material rewards to motivate followers. Consultative leaders tend to delegate authority and confer with others in making decisions.
Parts taken from Human Relations 4ed Leadership Styles Participative leaders encourage the group to work together towards shared goals. Free-Rein leaders set performance standards and then allow followers to work creatively to meet the standards. This approach is often called laissez-faire leadership.
Parts taken from Human Relations 4ed Leadership Styles Which leadership style is the best? The answer depends on two variables: The situation will often determine the most effective style. The second variable focuses on the personality and skill level of the leader.
Parts taken from Human Relations 4ed Leaders and the use of power and authority Power: The ability of one person to influence another. Authority: The vested power to influence or command within an organization. Leadership Styles
Parts taken from Human Relations 4ed Sources of power: Legitimate power: Power based on the position a person holds in an organization. Reward power: Power that comes from the user’s ability to control or influence others with something of value to them. Coercive power: Power that depends on the threat of possible punishment. Leadership Styles
Parts taken from Human Relations 4ed Sources of power (cont.): Networking power: Power that is attained by gaining contacts and knowing the right people. Expert power: Power that comes from a person’s knowledge or skill in areas that are critical to the success of the firm. Charismatic power: Power that is based on the attractiveness a person has to others. Leadership Styles
Parts taken from Human Relations 4ed Strategies for Success ** Maximize group effectiveness by setting up subgroups. Watching for hidden agendas Be aware of strong emotions in other members. Note contradictions between verbal and nonverbal signals. Pay attention to themes that keep coming up, perhaps disguised, even after the formal topic has been changed. Recognize agenda conflicts that involve a group member’s self-esteem.
Parts taken from Human Relations 4ed Strengthening leadership power Strengthen legitimate power. Strengthen reward power. Strengthen coercive power. Strengthen networking power. Strengthen expert power. Strengthen charismatic power. Strategies for Success