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Changes in Chromosome Number

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Presentation on theme: "Changes in Chromosome Number"— Presentation transcript:

1 Changes in Chromosome Number
Chapter 3

2 Central Points Chromosomes are composed of DNA and proteins
Most humans have 46 chromosomes Possible to test fetal chromosome number Extra chromosomes affect fetus

3 3.1 Chromosomes Thread-like structures in nucleus
Carry genetic information Humans have 46 Parts Centromere p arm q arm Telomeres


5 3.2 Changes in Chromosome Number
Eggs and sperm are produced by meiosis Begin with two copies of each chromosome (46) Two divisions meiosis I and meiosis II Homologous chromosome pairs separate Produces haploid cells with one copy of each chromosome (23)

6 Meiosis: Produces Haploid Cells

7 Meiosis: Produces Haploid Cells

8 Animation: Meiosis

9 Nondisjunction Chromosomes fail to separate
Results in gametes and zygote with an abnormal chromosome number Aneuploidy is variations in chromosome number that involve one or more chromosomes Most aneuploidy from errors in meiosis

10 Meiosis: The Creations of Gametes

11 Non-Disjunction During Meiosis
Non-disjunction in Meiosis 1 Non-disjunction in Meiosis 2

12 Monosomy zygote Trisomy zygote

13 Aneuploidy Effects vary by chromosomal condition
Many cause early miscarriages Leading cause of mental retardation

14 3.3 ID of Chromosomal Abnormalities
Two tests: Amniocentesis (> 16 weeks) Collects amniotic fluid Fetal cells grown and karyotype produced Chorionic villus sampling (CVS) (10–12 weeks) Rapidly dividing cells Karyotype within few days

15 Fetal cells are removed from the solution
Removal of about 20 ml of amniotic fluid containing suspended cells that were sloughed off from the fetus Biochemical analysis of the amniotic fluid after the fetal cells are separated out Centrifugation Fetal cells are removed from the solution Analysis of fetal cells to determine sex Cells are grown in an incubator Karyotype analysis p. 46

16 Amniocentesis Only Used in Certain Conditions
Risks for miscarriage; typically only done under one of following circumstances: Mother > 35 History of child with chromosomal abnormalities Parent has abnormal chromosomes Mother carries a X-linked disorder History of infertility or multiple miscarriages

17 Chorionic Villus Sampling (CVS)

18 Karyotype

19 Animation: Chromosomes and Human Inheritance (karyotype preparation)

20 Non-Invasive Prenatal Diagnosis
In 1997 it was determined the “cell-free” fetal DNA is found in maternal plasma Has been used to determine the sex and blood group of the fetus Harder to detect fetal chromosomal aneuploidies, because fetal DNA is only 3% of cell-free DNA in maternal plasma

21 Other Chromosomal Variations
Haploid: one copy of each chromosome Diploid: normal two copies of each chromosome Polyploidy: multiple sets of chromosomes Aneuploid: A variation in chromosome number, but not involving all of the chromosomes Trisomy: three copies of one chromosome Monosomy: only one copy of a chromosome Structural changes: duplication, deletion, inversion, translocation

22 Duplication

23 Deletion

24 Karyotype of Deletion on Chromosome 16

25 Inversion

26 Translocation

27 Translocation Karyotype

28 3.4 Effects of Changes in Chromosomes
Vary by chromosome and type of variation May cause birth defects or fetal death Monosomy of any autosome is fatal Only a few trisomies result in live births

29 Patau Syndrome

30 Trisomy 13: Patau Syndrome (47,+13)
1/15,000 Survival: 1–2 months Facial, eye, finger, toe, brain, heart, and nervous system malformations

31 Edwards Syndrome

32 Trisomy 18: Edwards Syndrome (47,+18)
1/11,000, 80% females Survival: 2–4 months Small, mental disabilities, clenched fists, heart, finger, and foot malformations Die from heart failure or pneumonia

33 Down Syndrome

34 Trisomy 21: Down Syndrome (47,+21)
1/800 (changes with age of mother) Survival up to age 50 Leading cause of childhood mental retardation and heart defects Wide, flat skulls; large tongues; physical, mental, development retardation

35 Maternal Age and Down Syndrome

36 Aneuploidy and Sex Chromosomes
More common than in autosomes Turner syndrome (45,X): monosomy of X chromosome Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY) Jacobs syndrome (47,XYY)

37 Turner Syndrome

38 Turner Syndrome (45,X) Survival to adulthood
Female, short, wide-chested, undeveloped ovaries, possible narrowing of aorta Normal intelligence 1/10,000 female births, 95–99% of 45,X conceptions die before birth

39 Klinefelter Syndrome

40 Klinefelter Syndrome (47,XXY)
Survival to adulthood Features do not develop until puberty, usually sterile, may have learning disabilities 1/1,000 males

41 XYY Syndrome

42 XYY or Jacobs Syndrome (47,XYY)
Survival to adulthood Average height, thin, personality disorders, some form of mental disabilities, and adolescent acne Some may have very mild symptoms 1/1,000 male births

43 3.5 Ways to Evaluate Risks Genetic counselors are part of the health care team They assist understanding of: Risks Diagnosis Progression Possible treatments Management of disorder Possible recurrence

44 Counseling Recommendations (1)
Pregnant women or those who are planning pregnancy, after age 35 Couples with a child with: Mental retardation A genetic disorder A birth defect

45 Counseling Recommendations (2)
Couples from certain ethnic groups Couples that are closely related Individuals with jobs, lifestyles, or medical history that may pose a risk to a pregnancy Women who have had two or more miscarriages or babies who died in infancy

46 Genetic Counseling Most see a genetic counselor: Counselor
After a prenatal test; After the birth of a child; or To determine their risk Counselor Constructs a detailed family history and pedigree Shares information that allows an individual or a couple to make informed decisions

47 Future of Genetic Counseling
Human Genome Project (HGP) changed medical care and genetic testing Genetic counselor will become more important Evaluate reproductive risks and other conditions Allow at-risk individuals to make informed choices about lifestyle, children, and medical care

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