2 Focus QuestionWhat changes did Andrew Jackson represent in American political life?Jackson encouraged the idea of the common man’s participation in politicsMade elections more inclusive and democratic
3 Classroom Activity Age of Jackson In pairs or Triad’s Create a visual representation of Andrew Jackson’s PresidencyTimeline of Sec 4 & 5Flow ChartOutline.
4 The Controversial Election of 1824 End of the Era of Good FeelingRepublicans compete for the presidencySec of State John Quincy AdamsSpeaker of House Henry Clay
5 The Controversial Election of 1824 Sec of War John C. CalhounGeneral Andrew JacksonWilliam H. CrawfordCalhoun backed out in the hope of securing the vice presidency
6 The Controversial Election of 1824 No majority in the electoral collegeAdams finished with 84 votes, Jackson 99, Crawford 41 and Clay 37
7 The Controversial Election of 1824 12th Amendment – if no candidate receives a majorityElection decided by the House of Representatives from among the top three candidates
8 The Controversial Election of 1824 Jackson clearly expected to win, figuring that the House would act to confirm his strong showingHowever, Clay, as Speaker of the House, used his influence to sway the vote to Adams
9 The Controversial Election of 1824 The Philadelphia Observer charged that Adams had made a secret deal to obtain Clay’s supportThree days later, Adams’s nomination of Clay as secretary of state seemed to confirm the charges of a “corrupt bargain.”
10 The Election of 1828 Jackson won every state in the South and West Adams won the electoral votes of every state in the North except Pennsylvania and part of New YorkThe election results were a clear victory for Jackson
11 The Age of Jackson Jackson’s Appeal to the Common Citizen Jackson claimed he was of humble backgroundsJackson was a wealthy plantation owner
12 The Age of Jackson Spoils System Incoming officials throw out former appointees and replace them with their own friends
13 What does the cartoonist imply? That Andrew Jackson was corrupt and foolish for rewarding party loyalty with government jobs
14 The Age of JacksonFavored a rotational system of staffing the governmentGave away huge numbers of jobs to friends and political allies
15 The Indian CrisisJackson favored the forcible removal and relocation westward on reservationsUsing harassment and bribery, Jackson’s Admin. Forced many of the Indian Nations to march west to present day Oklahoma
16 The Indian CrisisOccupied massive amounts of land in Georgia, the Carolinas, Alabama, Mississippi, and TennesseeFarmers and miners wanted the land of the five civilized tribes
17 The Indian Crisis Indian Removal Act of 1830 Five Civilized Nations: Cherokee, Chickasaw, Creek, Choctaw, & SeminoleFederal government provided funds to negotiate treaties that would force the Native Americans to move west
18 The Indian CrisisJackson stated the removal policy was, “not only liberal, but generous,” because it would enable native Americans to maintain their way of life
19 Trail of TearsCherokee Nation tried to fight Indian Removal Act through the courtsChief Justice John Marshall refused to rule on first case brought against GeorgiaCherokee nation had no federal standingNeither foreign nation or a state
20 Trail of Tears Worcester v. Georgia 1832 Samuel Austin Worcester- missionaryCourt recognized Cherokee nation as a distinct political community of people
21 Trail of TearsSC ruled Georgia was not entitled to regulate lands and remove IndiansJackson replied by stating“John Marshall has made his decision; now let him enforce it.”
22 Analyze: Political Cartoons: “King” Andrew Jackson
23 Trail of TearsBy 1837, the Jackson administration had removed 46,000 Native American people from their land east of the MississippiOpening 25 million acres of land to white settlement and to slavery
24 Trail of Tears: Cause, Effect and Justification Compare the following maps that illustrate the land holdings of the Cherokee people at specific times in history
25 Trail of Tears: Cause, Effect and Justification
26 Focus QuestionWhat major political issues emerged during the 1830s?
27 The Nullification Crisis 1828 Congress passed a high tariffKnow as the Tariff of Abominationdrive up duties to as high as 45% while imposing heavy tariffs on raw materials like woolDisliked by southerners
28 Calhoun Champions Nullification John C. Calhoun – South CarolinaSupported the idea that state have the right to nullify or void any federal law deemed unconstitutionalSouth Carolina nullified the Tariff of 1828Prohibited the collection of tariff dutiesThreatened to secede from the nationCalhoun resigns the Vice Presidency becomes a SenatorPres. Jackson rejects South Carolina’s nullification and threatens to force if necessary – Force Bill passed
29 The Bank War Jackson Opposes the Bank of the United States (BUS) Jacksonian Democrats opposed the national bank because they thought it favored the wealthy.In 1832, Henry Clay supported a bill for the rechartering of the BUS—four years earlyHe felt that if Jackson signed it, he’d alienate his followers, and if he vetoed it, he’d lose the supports of the “best people” of the East.
30 The Bank War Jackson vetoed the renewal of the BUS Declared the bank as unauthorized by the Constitution (despite political foe John Marshall’s ruling that it was okay), and anti-American.The veto increased the power of the president by ignoring the Supreme Court and aligned the West against the East.
31 The Whig Party FormsHenry Clay and Daniel Webster form the Whig party in response to Jackson’s policiesBelieved in a strong national governmentBroad interpretation of the ConstitutionChallenged Jacksonian Democrats in local, state and national electionsElection of 1832 Clay ran for Pres.Jackson won in a landslide
32 Politics After Jackson Van Buren’s Presidency and the Panic of 1837The first president to have been born in AmericaInherited the depression caused by Jackson’s BUS killingThe panic of 1837 was caused by over speculation and the “Bank War,”Hundreds of banks fell, including some of Jackson’s “pet banks,” banks that had received the money that Jackson had withdrawn from the BUS to kill it