Presentation on theme: "Table of Contents Earth’s Interior Convection and the Mantle"— Presentation transcript:
1 Table of Contents Earth’s Interior Convection and the Mantle Drifting ContinentsSea-Floor SpreadingThe Theory of Plate Tectonics
2 Scientists have spent many years determining what is inside the earth Scientists have spent many years determining what is inside the earth. Geologists can’t use x-rays to see inside the earth or dig a hole deep enough to explore what is deep inside the Earth. They have used instruments to measure earthquake waves move through the Earth. These waves pass through different materials at different rates. By analyzing earthquake waves, geologists have theorized that the interior of the earth consists of layers.
3 Inside Our Earth Crust Mantle Outer Core Inner Core (5-70 km thickness)1,800 milesMantle(2867 km thickness)1,430 milesOuter Core(2,266 km thickness)750 mileradiusInner Core(1,216km thickness)Scientists have identified three main layers. At the center of the earth, is the core which is 750 miles in diameter. Next we find the outer core at 1,430 miles thick. Then we have the mantle at 1,800 miles. Finally, we have the earth’s crust which is very a thin layer in comparison to the rest of the earth at miles.Inside Our Earth
4 Composition of the Earth’s Layers The crust is made of soil,water and rock.The mantle is partmelted and part solidiron and magnesium.The outer core ismade of hot liquidnickel and iron.The earth’s crust is composed of minerals. This is where we live and where the oceans and mountains are. Underneath the soil and water, is rock. Under the crust, is the mantle of the earth which is made of thick material. The mantle is made of hot, part melted, part solid rock. It is composed of iron and magnesium. This hot melted rock is so deep that we usually do not worry about it, however, sometimes it forces its way through the mantle to the surface of the earth as lava form a volcano. The outer core is composed of liquid nickel and iron, two metals that sank slowly through the mantle to collect at the center of the earth. The inner core is made of solid nickel and iron. Although it is hot enough to be a liquid, the pressure at the center of the earth squeezes metals into a solid.The inner coreis made of solid nickel and iron.Composition of the Earth’s Layers
6 Exploring Inside the Earth - Earth’s InteriorExploring Inside the EarthGeologists have used two main types of evidence to learn about Earth’s interior: direct evidence from rock samples and indirect evidence from seismic waves.
7 The Crust - Earth’s Interior The crust is a layer of solid rock that includes both dry land and the ocean floor.
8 The CrustThe crust is composed of two rocks. The continental crust is mostly granite. The oceanic crust is basalt. Basalt is much denser than the granite. Because of this the less dense continents ride on the denser oceanic plates.
9 The Mantle - Earth’s Interior Earth’s mantle is made up of rock that is very hot, but solid. Scientists divide the mantle into layers based on the physical characteristics of those layers.
10 THE MANTLE IS THE THICKEST OF EARTH’S LAYERS! The mantle consists of 3 layers:The lithosphere is the uppermost part of the mantle and is similar to the crust in composition (~100 km thick)The asthenosphere is made of softer material but still flows like plastic due to increased pressure & temperature (~150 km depth)The lower portion is solid and extends all the way to the outer core(~ km)
11 The Outer CoreThe core of the Earth is like a ball of very hot metals. The outer core is so hot that the metals in it are all in the liquid state. The outer core is composed of the melted metals of nickel and iron.
12 The Inner CoreThe inner core of the Earth has temperatures and pressures so great that the metals are squeezed together and are not able to move about like a liquid, but are forced to vibrate in place like a solid.
13 Find a pair or trio and answer the following question: The EndFind a pair or trio and answer the following question:Have we ever seen part of the Mantle? Explain.
15 Temperature Inside the Earth - Earth’s InteriorTemperature Inside the EarthThe graph shows how temperatures change between Earth’s surface and the bottom of the mantle. On this graph the temperature at the Earth’s surface is 0oC. Study the graph carefully and then answer the questions.
16 Temperature Inside the Earth - Earth’s InteriorTemperature Inside the EarthReading Graphs:As you move from left to right on the x-axis, how does depth inside the Earth change?The depth increases.
17 Temperature Inside the Earth - Earth’s InteriorTemperature Inside the EarthEstimating:What is the temperature at the boundary between the lithosphere and the asthenosphere?About 1,600oC
18 Temperature Inside the Earth - Earth’s InteriorTemperature Inside the EarthEstimating:What is the temperature at the boundary between the lower mantle and the core?About 3,200oC
19 Temperature Inside the Earth - Earth’s InteriorTemperature Inside the EarthInterpreting Data:How does temperature change with depth in Earth’s interior?It generally increases with depth.
20 The Core - Earth’s Interior The core is made mostly of the metals iron and nickel. It consists of two parts–a liquid outer core and a solid inner core.
21 Using Prior Knowledge - Earth’s Interior Before you read, look at the section headings and visuals to see what this section is about. Then write what you know about Earth’s interior in a graphic organizer like the one below. As you read, write what you learn.What You KnowEarth’s crust is made of rock.Earth is very hot near the center.Dry land is part of the crust.The mantle is very hot.The core contains iron.What You LearnedGeologists use seismic waves to study Earth’s interior.Radioactive substances heat the interior of Earth.The crust is thickest under high mountains.The mantle is solid.Movements in the outer core create Earth’s magnetic field.
22 Links on the Structure of Earth - Earth’s InteriorLinks on the Structure of EarthClick the SciLinks button for links on the structure of Earth.
24 Types of Heat Transfer - Convection and the Mantle There are three types of heat transfer: radiation, conduction, and convection.
25 Types of Heat TransferRadiation is the transfer of energy through space without direct contactConduction is the transfer of heat within a material through direct contactConvection is the transfer of heat by movement of a fluid. Convection currents are the result of temperature and density differences that exist in the mantle*Density is a measure of how much mass there is in a volume of a substance g/mL or g/cm3
26 Convection Currents - Convection and the Mantle Heating and cooling of the fluid, changes in the fluid’s density, and the force of gravity combine to set convection currents in motion.
27 Convection Currents in Earth - Convection and the MantleConvection Currents in EarthHeat from the core and the mantle itself causes convection currents in the mantle.
28 Convection and the Mantle OutliningConvection and the MantleAn outline shows the relationship between major ideas and supporting ideas. As you read, make an outline about heat transfer. Use the red headings for the main topics and the blue headings for the subtopics.Types of Heat TransferRadiationConductionConvectionConvection CurrentsConvection in Earth’s Mantle
29 More on Convection Currents in the Mantle - Convection and the MantleMore on Convection Currents in the MantleClick the PHSchool.com button for an activity about convection currents in the mantle.
30 Click the Video button to watch a movie about mantle convections. - Convection and the MantleMantle ConvectionClick the Video button to watch a movie about mantle convections.
32 Alfred Wegener German Geologist 1910 Hypothesized that all the continents were once joined together in a single landmass and have since drifted apart.The Continental Drift HypothesisPangaea was the name given to this supercontinentWegener gathered evidence from many sources to support his hypothesis which included: land features, fossils, and evidence of climate changeFossils are traces of an ancient organism preserved in rock
34 Continental Drift - Drifting Continents Wegener’s hypothesis was that all the continents were once joined together in a single landmass called PANGAEA meaning “all lands.”
35 Evidence for Continental Drift - Drifting ContinentsEvidence for Continental DriftFossils and rocks found on different continents provide evidence that Earth’s landmasses once were joined together in the supercontinent Pangaea.
38 Evidence for Continental Drift - Drifting ContinentsEvidence for Continental DriftFossils and rocks found on different continents provide evidence that Earth’s landmasses once were joined together in the supercontinent Pangaea.
39 Identifying Supporting Evidence - Drifting ContinentsIdentifying Supporting EvidenceAs you read, identify the evidence that supports the hypothesis of continental drift. Write the evidence in a graphic organizer like the one below.EvidenceShape of continentsHypothesisEarth’s continents have moved.FossilsClimate change
40 PROBLEM!Wegener’s Hypothesis was rejected because he couldn’t provide a mechanism for this movement!He proposed that the continents plowed across the ocean floorsHe correctly explained the formation of mountainsWegener died in 1930 on an expedition in Greenland before his hypothesis could be proven.
41 Links on Continental Drift - Drifting ContinentsLinks on Continental DriftClick the SciLinks button for links on continental drift.
43 Mid-Ocean Ridges - Sea-Floor Spreading The East Pacific Rise is just one of the many mid-ocean ridges that wind beneath Earth’s oceans.
44 What Is Sea-Floor Spreading? In sea-floor spreading, the sea floor spreads apart along both sides of a mid-ocean ridge as new crust is added. As a result, the ocean floors move like conveyor belts, carrying the continents along with them.
45 Evidence for Sea-Floor Spreading Several types of evidence supported Hess’s theory of sea-floor spreading: eruptions of molten material, magnetic stripes in the rock of the ocean floor, and the ages of the rocks themselves.
46 Subduction at Trenches - Sea-Floor SpreadingSubduction at TrenchesIn a process taking tens of millions of years, part of the ocean floor sinks back into the mantle through deep-ocean trenches.
47 Growing an Ocean - Sea-Floor Spreading Because of sea-floor spreading, the distance between Europe and North America is increasing by a few centimeters per year.
48 Sequencing - Sea-Floor Spreading Make a flowchart to show the process of sea-floor spreading.Magma erupts along mid-ocean ridge.Magma cools to form new sea floor.Sea floor spreads away from ridge.
49 More on Sea-Floor Spreading Click the PHSchool.com button for an activity about sea-floor spreading.
50 Click the Video button to watch a movie about sea-floor spreading.
52 How Plates Move - The Theory of Plate Tectonics The theory of plate tectonics explains the formation, movement, and subduction of Earth’s plates.
53 Plate Boundaries - The Theory of Plate Tectonics There are three kinds of plate boundaries: divergent boundaries, convergent boundaries, and transform boundaries. A different type of plate movement occurs along each type of boundary.
54 - The Theory of Plate Tectonics Calculating a RateTo calculate the rate of plate motion, divide the distance the plate moves by the time it takes to move that distance.Rate = distance/timeFor example, a plate takes two million years to move 156 km. Calculate its rate of motion.156 km/2,000,000 years = 7.8 cm per yearPractice ProblemThe Pacific plate is sliding past the North American plate. It has take ten million years for the plate to move 600 km. What is the Pacific plate’s rate of motion?60,000,000 cm ÷ 10,000,000 years = 6 cm/yr
55 Continental Drift - The Theory of Plate Tectonics It has taken the continents about 225 million years since the breakup of Pangaea to move to their present locations.
56 Continental Drift Activity - The Theory of Plate TectonicsContinental Drift ActivityClick the Active Art button to open a browser window and access Active Art about continental drift.
57 Building Vocabulary - The Theory of Plate Tectonics A definition states the meaning of a word or phrase by telling about its most important feature or function. After you read the section, reread the paragraphs that contain definitions of Key Terms. Use all the information you have learned to write a definition of each Key Term in your own words.Key Terms:Examples:divergent boundaryrift valleyconvergent boundarytransform boundaryKey Terms:Examples:plateThe place where two plates move apart, or diverge, is called a divergent boundary.The lithosphere is broken into separate sections called plates.scientific theoryA deep valley called a rift valley forms along the divergent boundary.A scientific theory is a well-tested concept that explains a wide range of observations.plate tectonicsThe theory of plate tectonics states that pieces of Earth’s lithosphere are in slow, constant motion, driven by convection currents in the mantle.The place where two plates come together, or converge, is called a convergent boundary.A transform boundary is a place where two plates slip past each other, moving in opposite directions.faultFaults are breaks in Earth’s crust where rocks have slipped past each other.
59 Graphic Organizer Type of Plate Boundary Type of Motion Effect on CrustFeature(s) FormedTransform boundaryPlates slide past each other.Crust is sheared.Strike-slip faultConvergent boundaryPlates move together.Subduction or mountain buildingMountains, volcanoesDivergent boundaryPlates move apart.Crust pulled apart by tension forces.Mid-ocean ridge, ocean floor