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16-2 1. Explain the purpose and the key items on the balance sheet 2. Explain and complete vertical and horizontal analysis How to Read, Analyze, and Interpret Financial Reports #16 Learning Unit Objectives Balance Sheet -- Report as of a Particular Date LU16.1

16-3 1. Explain the purpose and the key items on the income statement 2. Explain and complete vertical and horizontal analysis How to Read, Analyze, and Interpret Financial Reports #16 Learning Unit Objectives Income Statement -- Report for a Specific Period of Time LU16.2

16-4 1. Explain and complete a trend analysis 2. List, explain, and calculate key financial ratios How to Read, Analyze, and Interpret Financial Reports #16 Learning Unit Objectives Trend and Ratio Analysis LU16.3

16-5 Accounting Equation Accounting Equation: Assets = Liabilities + Owner’s Equity

16-6 Balance Sheet Gives a financial picture of what a company is worth as of particular date. Assets Liabilities + Owner’s Equity = How much the company owns How much the owner is worth How much the company owes

16-7 Figure 16.1 - Elements of the Balance Sheet MOOL COMPANY Balance Sheet December 31, 2011 Assets Liabilities a. Current assets: a. Current liabilities: b. Cash \$ 7,000 b. Accounts payable \$ 80,000 c. Accounts receivable 9,000c. Salaries payable 12,000 d. Merchandise inventory 30,000d. Total current liabilities \$ 92,000 e. Prepaid expenses 15,000 e. Long-term liabilities: f. Total current assets \$61,000 f. Mortgage note payable 58,000 g. Plant and equipment:g. Total liabilities \$150,000 h. Building (net) \$60,000 i. Land 84,000 Stockholders Equity j. Total plant and equipment 144,000 a. Common stock \$ 20,000 b. Retained earnings 35,000 c. Total stockholders equity 55,000 k. Total assets \$205,000 d. Total liab. and stkhlds equity \$205,000 Assets broken down into current assets and plant and equipment. Liabilities broken down into current and long-term Total of current assets and plant and equipment. (Total is double- ruled) Total of all liabilities and stockholders’ equity.

16-8 Preparing a Vertical Analysis of a Balance Sheet Step 2. Round each liability and stockholders’ equity (the portions) as a percent of total liabilities and stockholders’ equity (the base). Round as indicated. Step 1. Divide each asset (the portion) as a percent of total assets (the base). Round as indicated.

16-9 Figure 16.2 - Comparative Balance Sheet: Vertical Analysis ROGER COMPANY Comparative Balance Sheet December 31, 2010 and 2011 2011 2010 AmountPercentAmountPercent Assets Current Assets: Cash\$22,000 25.88\$18,000 22.22 Accounts Receivable 8,000 9.41 9,000 11.11 Merchandise inventory 9,000 10.59 7,000 8.64 Prepaid rent 4,000 4.71 5,000 6.71 Total current assets\$43,000 50.59\$39,000 48.15* Plant and equipment: Building (net)\$18,000 21.19\$18,000 22.22 Land 24,000 28.24 24,000 29.63 Total plant and equipment\$42,000 49.41*\$42,000 51.85 Total assets\$85,000 100.00\$81,000 100.00 * Due to rounding

16-10 Figure 16.2 - Comparative Balance Sheet: Vertical Analysis ROGER COMPANY Comparative Balance Sheet December 31, 2010 and 2011 2011 2010 AmountPercentAmountPercent Liabilities Current liabilities: Accounts payable \$14,000 16.47\$8,000 9.88 Salaries payable 18,000 21.18 17,000 20.99 Total current liabilities \$32,,000 37.65 \$25,000 30.86* Long-term liabilities: Mortgage note payable \$12,000 14.12\$20,000 24.69 Total liabilities \$44,000 51.76* \$25,000 30.86* Stockholders’ Equity Common stock \$20,000 23.53\$20,000 24.69 Retained earnings 21,000 24.71 16,000 19.75 Total Stockholders’ equity \$41,000 48.24\$36,000 44.44 Total Liabilities and Stockholders’ Equity \$85,000 100.00 \$81,000 100.00 * Due to rounding

16-11 Preparing a Horizontal Analysis of a Comparative Balance Sheet Step 1. Calculate the increase or decrease (portion) in each item from the base year. Step 2. Divide the increase or decrease in Step 1 by the old or base year. Step 3. Round as indicated.

16-12 Figure 16.3 - Comparative Balance Sheet: Horizontal Analysis ABBY ELLEN COMPANY Comparative Balance Sheet December 31, 2010 and 2011 Increase(decrease) 2011 2010AmountPercent Assets Current Assets: Cash\$ 6,000\$ 4,000\$ 2,000 50.00 Accounts Receivable 5,000 6,000 (1,000) -16.67 Merchandise inventory 9,000 4,000 5,000 125.00 Prepaid rent 5,000 7,000 (2,000) -28.57 Total current assets\$25,000\$21,000 \$ 4,000 19.05 Plant and equipment: Building (net)\$12,000 \$12,000 0 0 Land 18,000 18,000 0 0 Total plant and equipment\$30,000 \$30,000 0 0 Total assets\$55,000 \$51,000\$4,000 7.84

16-13 Figure 16.3 - Comparative Balance Sheet: Horizontal Analysis ABBY ELLEN COMPANY Comparative Balance Sheet December 31, 2010 and 2011 Increase(decrease) 2010 2011AmountPercent Liabilities Current liabilities: Accounts payable\$ 3,200\$ 1,800\$ 1,400 77.78 Salaries payable 2,900 3,200 (300) -9.38 Total current liabilities\$ 6,100 5,000 1,100 22.00 Long-term liabilities: Mortgage note payable 17,000 15,000 2,000 13.33 Total Liabilities \$ 23,100 20,000 3,100 15.50 Owner’s Equity Abby Ellen, capital\$31,900 31,000 \$ 900 2.90 Total liabilities and owner’s equity\$55,000 51,000 \$4,000 7.84

16-14 Income Statement A financial report that tells how well a company is performing (its profitability or net profit) during a specific period of time. Service Business Revenues -Operating Expenses =Net Income Retail Business Revenues (Sales) - Cost of merchandise sold = Gross profit from sales - Operating Expenses = Net Income (Profit) Income Statement \$

16-15 MOOL COMPANY Income Statement For Month Ended December 31, 2011 Revenues a. Gross Sales \$22,080 b. Less: Sales returns and allowances \$ 1,082 c. Sales discounts 432 1,514 d. Net Sales Cost of merchandise (goods) sold:\$20,566 a. Merchandise Inventory 12/1/2004\$ 1,248 b. Purchases \$10,512 c. Less: Purchases returns and allowances \$336 d. Less: Purchase discounts 204 540 e. Cost of net purchases 9,972 f. Cost of merchandise (goods available for sale) \$11,220 g. Less: Merchandise inventory 12/31/2004 1,600 h. Cost of merchandise (goods sold) 9,620 Gross profit from sales\$10,946 Operating expenses: a. Salary \$ 2,200 b. Insurance 1.300 c. Utilities 400 d. Plumbing 120 e. Rent 410 f. Depreciation 200 g.Total operating expenses 4,630 Net income\$ 6,316 Figure 16.4 - Income Statement

16-16 Key Calculations on Income Statement Net sales = Gross sales - Sales returns and - Sales discounts Allowances Net income = Gross profit - Operating expenses Gross profit = Net sales - Cost of merchandise from sales (goods) sold Cost ofNet purchases merchandise = Beginning + (purchase less - Ending (goods) sold inventory returns & discounts) inventory

16-17 Figure 16.5 - Income Statement Vertical Analysis ROYAL COMPANY Comparative Income Statement For Years Ended December 31, 2010 and 2011 2011 Percent 2010Percent of net of net Net Sales\$45,000 100.00\$29,000 100.00 Cost of merchandise sold 19,000 42.22 12,000 41.38 Gross profit from sales\$26,000 57.78\$17,000 58.62 Operating expenses: Depreciation \$1,000 2.22\$ 500 1.72 Selling and Advertising 4,200 9.33 1,600 5.52 Research 2,900 6.44 2,000 6.90 Miscellaneous 500 1.11 200.69 Total operating expenses \$8,600 19.11* \$ 4,300 14.83 Income before interest and taxes\$17,400 38.67\$12,700 43.79 Interest expense 6,000 13.33 3,000 10.34 Income before taxes\$11,400 25.33* \$ 9,700 33.45 Provision for taxes 5,500 12.22 3,000 10.34 Net income \$ 5,900 13.11 \$ 6,700 23.10* * Due to rounding

16-18 FLINT COMPANY Comparative Income Statement For Years Ended December 31, 2010 and 2011 2011 2010 Increase (decrease) Amount Percent Sales \$ 90,000 \$80,000\$10,000 Sales returns and allowances 2,000 2,000 0 Net Sales\$88,000 \$78,000 \$10,000 + 12.82 Cost of merchandise sold 45,000 40,000 5,000 + 12.50 Gross profit from sales\$43,000 \$38,000 \$ 5,000 + 13.16 Operating expenses: Depreciation\$ 6,000 \$ 5,000 \$ 1,000 + 20.00 Selling and Advertising 16,000 12,000 4,000 + 33.33 Research 600 1,000 (400) - 40.00 Miscellaneous 1,200 500 700 + 140.00 Total operating expenses\$23,800 \$18,500 \$ 5,300 + 28.65 Income before interest and taxes\$19,200 \$19,500\$ (300) - 1.54 Interest expense 4,000 4,000 0 Income before taxes\$15,200\$15,500 \$ (300) - 1.94 Provision for taxes 3,800 4,000 (200) - 5.00 Net income\$11,400 \$11,500 \$ (100) -.87 Figure 16.6 - Horizontal Analysis Income Statement

16-19 Completing a Trend Analysis Analyzes the changes that occur by expressing each number as a percent of the base year Step 1. Select the base year (100%) Step 2. Express each amount as a percent of the base year amount (rounded to the nearest whole percent) Each Item Base Amount

16-20 Trend Analysis Given (base year 2009) 2012201120102009 Sales\$621,000\$460,000\$340,000\$420,000 Gross Profit 182,000 141,000 112,000 124,000 Net Income 48,000 41,000 22,000 38,000 Trend Analysis 2012201120102009 Sales*148%110%81%100% Gross Profit14711490100 Net Income12610858100 \$340,000 \$420,000 * Round to nearest whole percent

16-21 Ratio Analysis A relationship of one number to another. Used to make comparisons versus previous performance or other companies Asset Management ratios How well the company manages its assets Debt Management ratios The company’s debt situation Profitability ratios The company’s profitability picture

16-22 Summary of Key Ratios Current ratio = Current assets Current liabilities Industry average, 2 to 1 Acid test (quick ratio) = Current assets - inventory-prepaid expenses Current liabilities Industry average, 1 to 1 Average day’s collection = Accounts receivable Net sales 360 Industry average, 90-120 days Total debt to total assets = Total liabilities Total assets Industry average, 50% - 70%

16-23 Summary of Key Ratios Return on equity = Net Income Stockholders equity Industry average, 15% - 20% Asset turnover = Net sales Total assets Industry average, \$.03 to \$.08 Profit margin on net sales = Net income Net sales Industry average, 25% - 40%

16-24 Problem 16-15: Return on equity: X \$15.2 X = 0.10 (\$15.2) X = \$1.52 million = 10%

16-25 Problem 16-17: a. Total liabilities \$1,768 Total assets \$2,015 = 87.74% b. Net income \$147 Stockholders' equity \$427 = 34.43% c. Net sales \$265 Total assets \$2015 = 13¢ d. Net income \$147 Net sales \$265 = 55.47%

16-26 Problem 16-18: 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 Sales 98% 106% 100% 98% 100% \$3,154 \$3,414 \$3,208 \$3,152 \$3,216 \$3,216 \$3,216 \$3,216 \$3,216 \$3,216 = 98.072139 = 106.15671 = 99.751243 = 98.00995 =100% = 98% =106% = 100% = 98%