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MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS PLANNING (MRP) AND ERP Chapter 14 1
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.14 – 2 WHAT IS MRP? Material Requirements Planning Dependant demand technique using bill of material, inventory, expected receipts, and a MPS to determine materials requirements 2
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.14 – 3 Benefits of MRP 3 1.Better response to customer orders 2.Faster response to market changes 3.Improved utilization of facilities and labor 4.Reduced inventory levels
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.14 – 4 Dependent Demand The demand for one item is related to the demand for another item Given a quantity for the end item, the demand for all parts and components can be calculated In general, used whenever a schedule can be established for an item MRP is the common technique 4
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.14 – 5 Dependent Demand 1.Master production schedule 2.Specifications or bill of material 3.Inventory availability 4.Purchase orders outstanding 5.Lead times Effective use of dependent demand inventory models requires the following 5
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.14 – 6 1.Master Production Schedule (MPS) Specifies what is to be made and when Must be in accordance with the aggregate production plan Inputs from financial plans, customer demand, engineering, supplier performance As the process moves from planning to execution, each step must be tested for feasibility The MPS is the result of the production planning process 6
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.14 – 7 Master Production Schedule (MPS) MPS is established in terms of specific products Schedule must be followed for a reasonable length of time The MPS is quite often fixed or frozen in the near term part of the plan The MPS is a rolling schedule The MPS is a statement of what is to be produced, not a forecast of demand 7
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.14 – 8 Master Production Schedule (MPS) A customer order in a job shop (make- to-order) company Modules in a repetitive (assemble-to- order or forecast) company An end item in a continuous (stock-to- forecast) company Can be expressed in any of the following terms: 8
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.14 – 9 The Planning Process Figure 14.1 Change production plan? Master production schedule Management Return on investment Capital Engineering Design completion Aggregate production plan Procurement Supplier performance Human resources Manpower planning Production Capacity Inventory Marketing Customer demand Finance Cash flow
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.14 – 10 The Planning Process Figure 14.1 Is capacity plan being met? Is execution meeting the plan? Change master production schedule? Change capacity? Change requirements?No Execute material plans Execute capacity plans Yes Realistic? Capacity requirements plan Material requirements plan Master production schedule
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.14 – 11 2.Bills of Material List of components, ingredients, and materials needed to make product Provides product structure Items above given level are called parents Items below given level are called children 11
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.14 – 12 Bills of Material Modular Bills Modules are not final products but components that can be assembled into multiple end items Can significantly simplify planning and scheduling 12
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.14 – 13 Bills of Material Planning Bills (Pseudo Bills) Created to assign an artificial parent to the BOM Used to group subassemblies to reduce the number of items planned and scheduled Used to create standard “kits” for production 13
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.14 – 14 Bills of Material Phantom Bills Describe subassemblies that exist only temporarily Are part of another assembly and never go into inventory Low-Level Coding Item is coded at the lowest level at which it occurs BOMs are processed one level at a time 14
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.14 – 15 3.Accurate Records Accurate inventory records are absolutely required for MRP (or any dependent demand system) to operate correctly Generally MRP systems require 99% accuracy 15
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.14 – 16 4. Purchase orders outstanding Outstanding purchase orders must accurately reflect quantities and scheduled receipts 16
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.14 – 17 5.Lead Times The time required to purchase, produce, or assemble an item For production – the sum of the order, wait, move, setup, store, and run times For purchased items – the time between the recognition of a need and the availability of the item for production 17
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.14 – 18 MRP Structure Figure 14.5 Output Reports MRP by period report MRP by date report Planned order report Purchase advice Exception reports Order early or late or not needed Order quantity too small or too large Data Files Purchasing data BOM Lead times (Item master file) Inventory data Master production schedule Material requirement planning programs (computer and software) 18
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.14 – 19 Safety Stock BOMs, inventory records, purchase and production quantities may not be perfect Consideration of safety stock may be prudent Should be minimized and ultimately eliminated Typically built into projected on-hand inventory 19
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.14 – 20 MRP Management MRP is a dynamic system Facilitates replanning when changes occur System nervousness can result from too many changes Time fences put limits on replanning Pegging links each item to its parent allowing effective analysis of changes 20
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.14 – 21 MRP and JIT MRP is a planning system that does not do detailed scheduling MRP requires fixed lead times which might actually vary with batch size JIT excels at rapidly moving small batches of material through the system 21
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.14 – 22 Finite Capacity Scheduling MRP systems do not consider capacity during normal planning cycles Finite capacity scheduling (FCS) recognizes actual capacity limits By merging MRP and FCS, a finite schedule is created with feasible capacities which facilitates rapid material movement 22
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.14 – 23 Extensions of MRP Closed-Loop MRP MRP system provides input to the capacity plan, MPS, and production planning process Capacity Planning MRP system generates a load report which details capacity requirements This is used to drive the capacity planning process Changes pass back through the MRP system for rescheduling 23
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.14 – 24 Material Requirements Planning II Once an MRP system is in place, inventory data can be augmented by other useful information Labor hours Material costs Capital costs Virtually any resource System is generally called MRP II or Material Resource Planning 24
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.14 – 25 Closed-Loop MRP System Figure 14.8 25
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.14 – 26 Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) An extension of the MRP system to tie in customers and suppliers 1.Allows automation and integration of many business processes 2.Shares common data bases and business practices 3.Produces information in real time Coordinates business from supplier evaluation to customer invoicing 26
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.14 – 27 Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) ERP modules include Basic MRP Finance Human resources Supply chain management (SCM) Customer relationship management (CRM) 27
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.14 – 28 ERP and MRP Figure 14.11 28
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.14 – 29 ERP and MRP Figure 14.11 Customer Relationship Management Invoicing Shipping Distributors, retailers, and end users Sales Order (order entry, product configuration, sales management) 29
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.14 – 30 Table 13.6 Bills of Material Work Orders Purchasing and Lead Times Routings and Lead Times Master Production Schedule Inventory Management ERP and MRP Figure 14.11 MRP 30
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.14 – 31 ERP and MRP Figure 14.11 Supply Chain Management Vendor Communication (schedules, EDI, advanced shipping notice, e-commerce, etc.) 31
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.14 – 32 ERP and MRP Figure 14.11 Table 13.6 Finance/ Accounting General Ledger Accounts Receivable Payroll Accounts Payable 32
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.14 – 33 Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) ERP can be highly customized to meet specific business requirements Enterprise application integration software (EAI) allows ERP systems to be integrated with Warehouse management Logistics Electronic catalogs Quality management 33
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.14 – 34 Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) ERP systems have the potential to Reduce transaction costs Increase the speed and accuracy of information Facilitates a strategic emphasis on JIT systems and integration 34
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.14 – 35 Advantages of ERP Systems 1.Provides integration of the supply chain, production, and administration 2.Creates commonality of databases 3.Can incorporate improved best processes 4.Increases communication and collaboration between business units and sites 5.Has an off-the-shelf software database 6.May provide a strategic advantage 35
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.14 – 36 Disadvantages of ERP Systems 1.Is very expensive to purchase and even more so to customize 2.Implementation may require major changes in the company and its processes 3.Is so complex that many companies cannot adjust to it 4.Involves an ongoing, possibly never completed, process for implementation 5.Expertise is limited with ongoing staffing problems 36
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.14 – 37 THANK YOU 37 QUESTIONS
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