Presentation on theme: "PHYSICAL PROCESSES Unit 2 Notes. EARTH-SUN RELATIONSHIPS Tilt: the angle of incline of the earth’s axis affects the temperature of a place. Earth’s."— Presentation transcript:
EARTH-SUN RELATIONSHIPS Tilt: the angle of incline of the earth’s axis affects the temperature of a place. Earth’s Tilt is at 23 ½ º Direct rays: When a hemisphere is tilted toward the sun, the direct rays of the sun (or angle of incidence) is higher and it is summer in that hemisphere. Indirect rays: When a hemisphere is tilted away from the sun, the direct rays of the sun or angle of incidence is lower and it is winter in that hemisphere.
4 SPHERES OF EARTH Lithosphere- Earth’s crust and solid upper mantle includes rocks, landforms, and other physical features Earth’s crust is divided into large slabs of rock called tectonic plates Continents are attached by the asthenosphere Plate movement shapes Earth’s surface Biosphere- refers to all life on Earth Ecosystems Biomes Weather & climate influences where plants & animals can live and thrive
4 SPHERES OF EARTH Atmosphere-envelope of gases that absorbs radiation, moderates temperature, and distributes water Greenhouse Effect- Layer of gases (ozone, methane, carbon dioxide, and water vapor) that absorbs heat and distributes it around the earth. Natural way for Earth to retain its warmth and for plants and animals to survive. Hydrosphere- all of Earth’s water, including oceans, lakes, rivers, and underground Covers 70% of Earth’s surface
WEATHER Weather refers to conditions in the atmosphere closest to Earth, which occur over a short period of time Weather includes all forms of humidity, winds, and precipitation (rain, snow, or hail). Weather is affected by: Latitude Elevation (height above sea level) Wind Patterns Ocean Currents Mountain Barriers (blocks warm air masses, forcing them to turn cold & dry, preventing precipitation from travelling past mountain)
CLIMATE Latitude Low Latitude- between 23 ½° N and 23 ½ ° S (Tropical Rainforest, Tropical Grasslands, Desert) Mid Latitude- between 23 ½ °N and 66 ° N AND 23 ½ ° S and 66 ° S (Grasslands, Humid Subtropical, Humid Continental, Mediterranean, Marine West Coast) High Latitude- Poles; above 66 ° N AND below 66 ° S (Arctic & Subarctic) Landforms (location, size, etc.) Elevation Proximity to large bodies of water Water heats and cools slower than does land Milder climates near large bodies of water More extreme climates away from large bodies of water (continental climate). Wind and Currents
ECOSYSTEMS Ecosystem- community of living organisms (plants, animals, microbes) working jointly with non-living organisms (air, water, and soil) as one system. External Factors Climate Rainfall Patterns Temperature Internal Factors Types of Species Present Decomposition Root Competition
BIOMES Deciduous Forest- mid-latitude regions; ample rain, moderate temperatures and cool winters. Trees change color in fall, lose leaves in winter Wide variety of plant and animal life Tropical Rain Forest- located near the Equator, ample rainfall and warm temperatures year-round. Large trees and leaves form a canopy over area Widest diversity of plant and animal life Grasslands & Savannas (Steppes)- drier climate, not enough rainfall to support trees. Grasses dominate these areas. Savannas have some trees Cattle, Antelope, Bison graze Deserts- receive less than 10 inches of rainfall annually. Plant and animal life have adapted to lack of water and extreme temperature.
WEATHERING Weathering- the wearing down of rocks on Earth’s surface by the actions of wind, water, ice, and living things Mechanical Weathering- involves the breakdown of rocks and soil through direct contact with atmosphere Heat Water Ice Wind Chemical Weathering- the direct effect of atmospheric chemicals or biologically-produced chemicals on rocks and soil Carbonation Hydration Oxidation
EROSION Water- the force of moving bodies of water carry away small pieces of rock, sand, and soil. Ex. Grand Canyon Wind- wears down and carries away loose particles, more prevalent in arid and semi-arid climates Glaciers- polishes the rock as it moves in basin, cracks pieces of rock after freezing, and freezes over sediment and forces it to move with it