Presentation on theme: "Chapter 10 Adaptations to Aerobic and Anaerobic Training."— Presentation transcript:
1 chapter10Adaptations to Aerobic and Anaerobic Training
2 Learning ObjectivesLearn how cardiorespiratory endurance differs from muscular enduranceLearn about the cardiorespiratory adaptations to endurance trainingFind out what changes occur in the oxygen transport system as a result of endurance training(continued)
3 Learning Objectives (continued) Examine metabolic adaptations that occur with endurance trainingLearn how cardiorespiratory and metabolic adaptations benefit performance in both endurance and nonendurance sports(continued)
4 Learning Objectives (continued) Find out how training can maximize our energy systems and our potential to performLearn the differing adaptations that occur with aerobic and anaerobic trainingFind out how specific types of aerobic and anaerobic training can improve performance
5 Aerobic and Anaerobic Training Aerobic (endurance) trainingImproved central and peripheral blood flowEnhances the capacity of muscle fibers to generate ATPAnaerobic trainingIncreased short-term, high-intensity endurance capacityIncreased anaerobic metabolic functionIncreased tolerance for acid–base imbalances during highly intense effort
6 EnduranceMuscular endurance: the ability of a single muscle or muscle group to sustain high-intensity repetitive or static exerciseCardiorespiratory endurance: the entire body’s ability to sustain prolonged, dynamic exercise using large muscle groups
7 Evaluating Cardiorespiratory Endurance .VO2maxHighest rate of oxygen consumption attainable during maximal exerciseVO2max can be increased by 10-15% with 20 weeks of endurance training.
8 Increases in VO2max With Endurance Training .Increases in VO2max With Endurance TrainingFick equation:VO2 = SV HR (a-v)O2 diff.
9 Changes in VO2max With 12 Months of Endurance Training .Changes in VO2max With 12 Months of Endurance Training
10 Cardiovascular Adaptation to Training Heart sizeStroke volumeHeart rateCardiac outputBlood flowBlood pressureBlood volume
11 Percentage Differences in Heart Size Among Three Groups of Athletes Compared With Untrained Group
12 Heart Size (Central) Adaptation to Endurance Training Key PointsThe left ventricle changes significantly in response to endurance trainingThe internal dimensions of the left ventricle increase as an adaptation to an increase in ventricular filling secondary to an increase in plasma volume and diastolic filling timeLeft ventricular wall thickness and mass increase, allowing for greater contractility
16 Stroke Volume Adaptations to Endurance Training Key PointsEndurance training increases SV at rest and during submaximal and maximal exerciseIncreases in end-diastolic volume, caused by an increase in blood plasma and greater diastolic filling time (lower heart rate), contribute to increased SVIncreased ventricular filling (preload) leads to greater contractility (Frank-Starling mechanism)Reduced systemic vascular resistance (afterload)
17 Heart Rate Adaptations to Endurance Training RestingDecreases by ~1 beat/min with each week of trainingIncreased parasympathetic (vagal) toneSubmaximalDecreases heart rate for a given absolute exercise intensityMaximalUnchanged or decreases slightly
19 Heart Rate RecoveryThe time it takes the heart to return to its resting rate after exerciseFaster rate of recovery after trainingIndirect index of cardiorespiratory fitnessProlonged by certain environments (heat, altitude)Can be used as a tool to track the progress of endurance training
20 Changes in Heart Rate Recovery With Endurance Training
21 Cardiac Output Adaptations to Endurance Training .Q = HR x SVDoes not change at rest or during submaximal exercise (may decrease slightly)Maximal cardiac output increases due largely to an increase in stroke volume
22 Changes in Cardiac Output With Endurance Training
23 Cardiac Output Adaptations Key PointsQ does not change at rest or during submaximal exercise after training (may decrease slightly)Q increases at maximal exercise and is largely responsible for the increase in VO2maxIncreased maximal Q results from the increase in maximal SV....
24 Blood Flow Adaptations to Endurance Training Blood flow to exercising muscle is increased with endurance training due to:Increased capillarization of trained musclesGreater recruitment of existing capillaries in trained musclesMore effective blood flow redistribution from inactive regionsIncreased blood volumeIncreased Q.
26 Blood Pressure (BP) Adaptations to Endurance Training Resting BP decreases in borderline and hypertensive individuals (6-7 mmHg reduction)Mean arterial pressure is reduced at a given submaximal exercise intensity (↓ SBP, ↓ DBP)At maximal exercise (↑ SBP, ↓ DBP)
27 Blood Volume (BV) Adaptations to Endurance Training BV increases rapidly with endurance trainingPlasma volume increases due to:Increased plasma proteins (albumin)Increased antidiuretic hormone and aldosteroneRed blood cell volume increasesHemoglobin increases
28 Increases in Total Blood Volume and Plasma Volume With Endurance Training
29 Blood Flow, Pressure, and Volume Adaptations to Endurance Training Key PointsBlood flow to active muscles is increased due to:↑ Capillarization↑ Capillary recruitmentMore effective redistribution↑ Blood volumeBlood pressure at rest as well as during submaximal exercise is reduced, but not at maximal exercise(continued)
30 Blood Flow, Pressure, and Volume Adaptations to Endurance Training (continued) Key PointsBlood volume increasesPlasma volume increases through increased protein content and by fluid conservation hormonesRed blood cell volume and hemoglobin increaseBlood viscosity decreases due to the increase in plasma volume
31 Respiratory Adaptations to Endurance Training Key PointsLittle effect on lung structure and function at restIncrease in pulmonary ventilation during maximal exercise↑ Tidal volume↑ Respiratory ratePulmonary diffusion increases at maximal exercise due to increased ventilation and lung perfusion(a-v)O2 difference increases with training, reflecting increased extraction of oxygen at the tissues
32 Adaptations in Muscle to Endurance Training Increased size (cross-sectional area) of type I fibersTransition of type IIx → type IIa fiber characteristicsTransition of type II → type I fiber characteristicsIncreased number of capillaries per muscle fiber and for a given cross-sectional area of muscleIncreased myoglobin content of muscle by 75% to 80%Increased number, size, and oxidative enzyme activity of mitochondria
33 Change in Maximal Oxygen Uptake and SDH Activity With Endurance Training
34 Gastrocnemius Oxidative Enzyme Activities of Untrained (UT) Subjects, Moderately Trained (MT) Joggers, and Highly Trained (HT) RunnersAdapted, by permission, from D.L. Costill et al., 1979, "Lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle of endurance-trained males and females," Journal of Applied Physiology 28: and from D.L. Costill et al., 1979, "Adaptations in skeletal muscle following strength training," Journal of Applied Physiology 46:
35 Adaptations in Muscle With Training Key PointsType I fibers tend to enlargeIncrease in type I fibers and a transition from type IIx to type IIa fibersIncreased number of capillaries supplying each muscle fiberIncrease in the number and size of muscle fiber mitochondriaOxidative enzyme activity increasesIncreased capacity of oxidative metabolism
36 Metabolic Adaptations to Training Lactate threshold increases due to:Increased clearance and/or decreased production of lactateReduced reliance on glycolytic systemsRespiratory exchange ratio decreases due to:Increased utilization of free fatty acidsOxygen consumption (VO2)Unchanged (or slightly reduced) at submaximal intensitiesVO2max increasesLimited by the ability of the cardiovascular system to deliver oxygen to active muscles..
40 Changes in Race Pace With Continued Training After VO2max Stops Increasing .
41 Increased Performance After VO2max Has Peaked .Once an athlete has achieved her genetically determined peak VO2max, she can still increase her endurance performance due to the body’s ability to perform at increasingly higher percentages of that VO2max for extended periods. The increase in performance without an increase in VO2max is a result of an increase in lactate threshold....
42 Factors Affecting VO2max .Factors Affecting VO2maxLevel of conditioning: Initial state of conditioning will determine how much VO2max will increase (i.e., the higher the initial value, the smaller the expected increase)Heredity: Accounts for 25-50% of the variation in VO2maxSex: Women have lower VO2max compared to menIndividual responsiveness: There are high responders and low responders to endurance training, which is a genetic phenomenon...
43 Comparisons of VO2max in Twins and Nontwin Brothers .Comparisons of VO2max in Twins and Nontwin BrothersAdapted, by permission, from C. Bouchard et al., 1986, “Aerobic performance in brothers, dizygotic and monozygotic twins,” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 18:
46 Variations in the Percentage Increase in VO2max for Identical Twins .From D. Prud'homme et al., 1984, “Sensitivity of maximal aerobic power to training is genotype-dependent,” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 16(5): Copyright 1984 by American College of Sports Medicine. Adapted by permission.
47 .Variations in the Improvement in VO2max Following 20 Weeks of Endurance Training.Adapted, by permission, from C. Bouchard et al., 1999, “Familial aggregation of VO2max response to exercise training: Results from HERITAGE Family Study,” Journal of Applied Physiology 87:
48 Cardiorespiratory Endurance and Performance It is the major defense against fatigueShould be the primary emphasis of training for health and fitnessAll athletes can benefit from maximizing their endurance
49 Adaptations to Aerobic Training Key PointsAlthough VO2max has an upper limit, endurance performance can continue to improveAn individual’s genetic makeup predetermines a range for his or her VO2max and accounts for 25-50% of the variance in VO2maxHeredity largely explains an individual’s response to trainingHighly conditioned female endurance athletes have VO2max values about 10% lower than their male counterpartsAll athletes can benefit from maximizing their cardiorespiratory endurance....
50 Summary of Cardiovascular Adaptation to Chronic Endurance Training Adapted, by permission, from Donna H. Korzick, Pennsylvania State University, 2006.
51 Muscle Adaptations to Anaerobic Training Increased muscle fiber recruitmentIncreased cross-sectional area of type IIa and type IIx muscle fibers
52 Energy System Adaptations to Anaerobic Training Increased ATP-PCr system enzyme activityIncreased activity of several key glycolytic enzymesNo effect on oxidative enzyme activity
53 Changes in Creatine Kinase (CK) and Myokinase (MK) Activities With Anaerobic Training
54 Performance in a 60 s Sprint Bout After Anaerobic Training
55 Anaerobic Training Key Points Anaerobic training bouts improve both anaerobic power and anaerobic capacityIncreased performance with anaerobic training is attributed to strength gainsIncreases ATP-PCr and glycolytic enzymes
57 Specificity of Training and Cross-Training To maximize cardiorespiratory gains from training, the training should be specific to the type of activity that the athlete usually performsCross-training is training for more than one sport at a timeGains in muscular strength and power are less when strength training is combined with endurance training
58 .VO2max Values During Uphill Treadmill Running vs. Sport-Specific Activities in Selected Groups of AthletesAdapted, by permission, from S.B. Strømme, F. Ingjer, and H.D. Meen, 1977, “Assessment of maximal aerobic power in specifically trained athletes,” Journal of Applied Physiology 42: