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February 24 2006 1 University of Genoa University of Rome Tor Vergata Phosphenes in space and in controlled experiments in accelerator:

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Presentation on theme: "February 24 2006 1 University of Genoa University of Rome Tor Vergata Phosphenes in space and in controlled experiments in accelerator:"— Presentation transcript:

1 February 24 2006 1 University of Genoa University of Rome Tor Vergata Phosphenes in space and in controlled experiments in accelerator: the ALTEA findings updated L. Narici 1,4, S. Carozzo 5, A. Ciccotelli 1, A. De Martino 2, L. Di Fino 1,4, V. Brunetti 1, M. Paci 3, A. Rinaldi 1, M. Vadrucci 1,4 and W. G. Sannita 5 1 Department of Physics 2 Department of Biology 3 Department of Chemical Science and Technology – University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy, 4 INFN Roma Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy; 5 DISM – University of Genova, Genova, Italy

2 February 24 2006 2 phopsphene in space Intuition in the 50s - It is conceivable that very densely ionizing tracks would produce small flash-like light sensations Cornelius A. Tobias 1952 Reports/experiments in space -Anusual flashes of light have been first reported from the Apollo 11 crew (July 1969) -following Apollo flights (12-17) -Skylab missions (1973) -Apollo - Soyuz (1974) -MIR (late 90s) -ISS (2002-today) -Shuttle flights Experiments on ground - many in the 70s perceived light flashes

3 February 24 2006 3 ALTEA experimental strategy MICE Short pulses ( 2 ms) of 12C (103 ions/pulse) are delivered on the eye Cortical and retinal potential are measured CNSM Particle impinging in the brain/eyes are measured Instants of LF perception is recorded cortical and retinal potential are measured HIT cortical and retinal potential are measured Instants of LF perception is recorded Therapy plan (in dose and time) is acquired Biophys Irradiation of rhodopsin Spectrophotometric measurements of bleaching

4 February 24 2006 4 ALTEA ground: MICE 1 Mice irradiation at GSI and BNL 12 C beam at 250 MeV/n - 10 3 ions/s - 2ms per spill first evidence of electrophysiological signal from particle passages

5 February 24 2006 5 ALTEA CNSM - Astronaut is dark adapted, relax and signals the phosphene perception with the Push Button - Particle travelling through the head are measured - EEG is measured

6 February 24 2006 6 phosphene counts YearSpacecraftrate(LF/h)Z 1974Skylab30- 1975ApolloSTP29- 1995/9MIR113 + 8 +24 2002ISS (Pirs) 6- 2007ISS (USLab) 3 (from 0 to 12) 3

7 February 24 2006 7 particle counts Average ion rate per minute passing through both eyes of an astronaut (with an estimation of Z and energy): 2 x 10 -3 efficiency higher limit 4 - 500 ions/min in the brain 20 LF/7 h 5 x 10 -2 LF/min with 2 x 10 1 ions/min averaged over all 7 sessions first measurement of the charged radiation in the eyes in space

8 February 24 2006 8 electrophysiological signal ion ratio of eye acceptance to SDS acceptance is 6.3 we expect about 3-4 candidates We found three candidates from the retinal responses Time from the pressure of the Pushbutton [at t = 0 s] (s) In red the ions traveling through the right eye = 0.39 ± 0.07 s Reaction time (ms)

9 February 24 2006 9 ALTEA HIT 1 The Heavy Ion Therapy in GSI (Darmstadt, Germany) Thanks to Dieter Schardt

10 February 24 2006 10 ALTEA HIT 2 - The patient signal the phosphene with the Push Button - Particles in the brain are controlled - EEG and ERG signals are recorded The timing problem Reaction time

11 February 24 2006 11 ALTEA HIT 3

12 February 24 2006 12 ALTEA HIT 4

13 February 24 2006 13 ALTEA: Men and Mice

14 February 24 2006 14 ALTEA biophys: rhodopsin activation A model to generate phopsphenes in the retina

15 February 24 2006 15 ALTEA ground: MICE 2 Only light Light + particles.. independent path to cortex? No changes in the retinal potentials Visual Evoked Potential (cortex)

16 February 24 2006 16 protons? Loma Linda: a collaboration is starting many patients are perceiving phosphenes colors (function of field!) smell (previously reported only once in 1986) taste YES Orsay: a collaboration is starting out of 40 screened patients, 24 perceived phosphenes

17 February 24 2006 17 Conclusions … no real conclusions … just the first model + lots of new questions - the model can be the end point for many (all?) eye - related phosphenes - investigations on functional interactions with non-visual paths are in progress

18 February 24 2006 18 ALTEA team Altamura F Avdeev S. Ball S. Ballarini F. Battistoni G. Belli F. Bencardino R. Bengin V. Benton E. Bidoli V. Bisti S. Boezio M. Bonvicini W. Brunetti V. Carlson P. Carozzo S. Casolino M. Castellini G. Ciccotelli A. Cingolani G. Cotronei V. Cucinotta F. De Martino A. DePascale M.P. Di Fino L. Ferrari A. Fuglesang C. Furano G. Galper A. Gianelli G. Khodarovich A. Korotkov M.G. Iwase H. La Tessa C. Larosa M. Lee K. Licoccia S. Maccarone R. Mancusi D. Marchetti M. Mazzenga G. Miller J. Morino V. Morselli A. Narici L. Negri B. Notaro G. Ottolenghi A. Paci M. Peachey N.S. Petrov V.P. Picozza P.. Popov A. Reali E. Ricci M. Rinaldi A. Romagnoli P. Russo M. Ruggieri D. Salnitski V.P. Sannita W.G. Sato T. Schardt D. Semones E. Shavers M. Shevchenko O.I. Shurshakov V.A Sihver L. Sparvoli R. Spillantini P. Trukhanov K.A. Vacchi A. Vavilov N. Vazquez M. Vittori R. Zaconte V. Zampa N. Zapp N. Dept. di Physics, Univ. of Rome "Tor Vergata" and INFN Sect. Roma2, Roma Dept of Physics, Univ. of Pavia, Pavia Dept of Physics, Univ. of Milan, Milan DISM-Univ. of Genoa, Genoa L.N.F. - INFN, Frascati (Rome) CERN - INFN Dept. of Physics,Univ. e Sect. INFN of Trieste, Perugia, Firenze Dept. of Sc. and Chemical Tec., Univ. of Rome "Tor Vergata Dept. of STB - Univ. of LAquila, LAquila GSI - Biophysik, Darmstadt, Germany Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden Institute for BioMedical Problems, Moscow, Russia. Russian Space Corporation "Energia" by name Korolev, Korolev, Moscow region, Russia Moscow State Engineering Physics Institute, Moscow, Russia Johnson Space Center, NASA, Houston TX, USA Brookhaven National Laboratory, NY, USA Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, CA, USA Cole Eye institute, The Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA Wyle Laboratories, TX, USA Eril Research, CA, USA + others joining in JAERI, Japan

19 February 24 2006 19 Thank you for your attention

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