2 What is a transformer ? one circuit to another by magnetic coupling •It is an electrical device that transfers electrical power fromone circuit to anotherby magnetic couplingIt does so without change of frequencyand without any moving parts.Transformer works only with AC
3 Why do we need transformers? Because transformers• adjust the voltage coming into the appliance to keep it operating properly• measure high voltages and currents in a safe manner.•help using devices in wet areas.
5 Construction of Transformer : The transformer is very simple in constructionIt consists of magnetic circuit linking with two windings.
6 Construction of Transformer : Core is made up of laminations to reduce the eddy current losses The thickness of laminations is usually 0.4mm
7 Construction of Transformer The coil windings are wound on the limbs and are insulated from each other
8 Function of Transformer Parts PieceFunctionCoreProvides a path for the magneticPrimarywindingReceives the energy from the ac sourceSecondary windingReceives energy from the primary winding and delivers it to the loadEnclosureProtects the above components from dirt, moisture, and damage
9 Principle of operation 1. When current in the primary coil changes being alternating in nature, a changing magnetic field is produced2. This changing magnetic field gets associated with the secondary through the soft iron core3. Hence magnetic flux linked with the secondary coil changes.4. Which induces e.m.f. in the secondary.
10 Principle of operation The rms value of the induced voltages are
11 Principle of operation For ideal transformer E1=V1 and E2= V2The power in ideal transformerThen
12 Transformer doesn't work on a DC supply According to the principle of Transformer operationIt doesn't work on a DC supply since the rate of change of flux is zero
13 Transformer Rating It is written in terms of Apparent Power. Apparent power is the product of its rated current and rated voltage.Where,I1 and I2 = rated current on primary and secondary winding.V1 and V2 = rated voltage on primary and secondary winding.Rated currents are the full load currents in transformer
14 Transformer Rating and Name Plate Assume that the transformer has the following name plate ratings:40 kVA, 11 kV/ 440 V, 50 HzWhat do these numbers imply?
16 Classification of transformers: according to turns ratio:1- step up transformer2- step down transformer
17 Classification of transformers: according to number of phases1- single phase transformer2- poly phase transformer
18 Classification of transformers: according to their function :1- power transformer2- distribution transformer3- measuring transformersA)voltage transformerB) current transformer4-Autotransformer- Tapped autotransformer
19 1-Power Transformer:It is a power transformer connected to the output of a generator and used to step its voltage up to the transmission level .
20 2-Distribution transformer It is a transformer converting the distribution voltage down to the final level
26 According to cooling 1)Air natural Type (A.N.) A)Air Cooling For Dry Type Transformers:It is used for transformers that use voltages below 25KV1)Air natural Type (A.N.)This type of Transformer Cooling method applies to dry type transformer of small rating.As power ratings increase, transformers are often cooled by forced-air cooling
27 According to cooling 2)Air Forced type (A.F.) The air is forced on to the tank surface to increase the rate of heat dissipation.The fans are switched on when the temperature of the winding increases above permissible level.
28 According to cooling B)Cooling For Oil Immersed Transformers: 1)Oil Natural Air Natural Type (O.N.A.N.)This type of Transformer cooling is widely used for oil filled transformers up to about 30MVA.Heat is transferred from transformer windings and core to the oil andthe heated oil is cooled by the natural air.Cooling area is increased by providing the cooling tubes.
29 Oil Natural Air Natural Transformer Cooling According to coolingB)Cooling For Oil Immersed Transformers:Oil Natural Air Natural Transformer Cooling
30 According to coolingB)Cooling For Oil Immersed Transformers:2)Oil Natural Air Forced Type (O.N.A.F.)•In higher rating transformers where the heat dissipation is difficult• this type of cooling is used.• Fans are used to forced and air blast on radiators.
31 Oil Natural Air Forced Transformer Cooling According to coolingB)Cooling For Oil Immersed Transformers:Oil Natural Air Forced Transformer Cooling
32 According to cooling B)Cooling For Oil Immersed Transformers: 3)Oil Forced Air Forced Type (O.F.A.F.)Oil Natural Air Forced type of cooling is not adequate to remove the heat caused by the losses.Transformers above 60 MVA employ a combination of Forced Oil and Forced Air Cooling.
33 Oil Forced Air Forced Transformer Cooling According to coolingB)Cooling For Oil Immersed Transformers:Oil Forced Air Forced Transformer Cooling
34 According to cooling B)Cooling For Oil Immersed Transformers: 4)Oil Forced Water Forced (O.F.W.F.)This type of cooling Is provided for very large transformers which have ratings of some hundreds of MVAThis type of transformers is used in large substations and power plants.
35 Oil Forced Water Forced Transformer Cooling According to coolingB)Cooling For Oil Immersed Transformers:Oil Forced Water Forced Transformer Cooling
36 Transformer Equivalent Circuit The equivalent circuit shown can be used to predict the performance of the transformer
37 Determination of Equivalent Circuit Parameters All the circuit parameters can be easily determined by performing three tests,D.C. testa no-load test (or open circuit test)short circuit test
38 1-D.C. testThis test is carried out to measure the resistance of each windingThe resistance of each winding is obtained from the Ohms Law R = E/i
39 2-Open circuit (no load) test Open circuit test is carried out to determine magnetizing current and core lossesThis test is performed by applyingthe rated voltage to LV windingkeeping the HV winding open
40 2-Open circuit (no load) test The wattmeter reading gives the full load core lossessince the no load test is carried at full load
41 3-Short circuit (SC) test • In this test the secondary terminals are short- circuited through an ammeter• The primary terminals are connected to a low-voltage source• The input voltage is adjusted until the current in the short circuited windings is equal to its rated value
42 3-Short circuit testThe wattmeter reading gives the full load copper lossessince the core losses is very small at this reduced voltage
43 Voltage RegulationIt is defined as the variation of no-load to full-load voltage of either the primary or secondary as percentage of no-load voltageThe purpose of voltage regulation is to determine the percentage of voltage drop between no load and full load.
44 Transformer Efficiency Transformer efficiency is defined as
45 Transformer Losses and Efficiency Types of losses incurred in a transformer:1- Copper I2R losses2- Core losses (hysteresis losses and eddy current losses)Transformer Losses and Efficiency
46 Transformer Losses and Efficiency Transformer efficiency may be calculated using the following:Ideal transformer will have maximum efficiency at a load such thatcopper losses = iron losses
47 Example O.C. test Primary voltage 3300 V Secondary voltage 400 V The open-circuit and short-circuit tests conducted on 50 KVA transformer gave the following result:O.C. testPrimary voltage3300 VSecondary voltage400 VPrimary power460 WS.C. test124 VPrimary current15.4 A540 WCalculate(a) efficiency at full load and 0.8 power factor(b) the voltage regulation if full load primary voltage is 3200V
48 Solution (a) efficiency at full load and 0.8 power factor From open-circuit test Core losses=460 WFrom short-circuit test Copper losses= 540W(a) efficiency at full load and 0.8 power factor