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Reality Therapy (William Glasser)

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1 Reality Therapy (William Glasser)

2 Basic Beliefs Key person: William Glasser
Key theory: Choice theory and control theory Focus on responsibility for choice Focus on the unsatisfied needs, which are often the cause of problems The only person you can control is yourself Behavior = an attempt to get what we want Focus symptoms = avoid facing unsatisfied needs

3 Five basic psychological needs
Need for Survival Taking care of oneself by eating, drinking… Need for Belonging Need for love or relationship Need for Power To be better than others Need for Freedom How we wish to live our lives, express ourselves… Need for Fun Laughing, joking, sports, reading…

4 View of Human Nature--people
Try to meet basic psychological needs Try to get what they want Identify the frustrated need and try to satisfy it. Choose to be miserable instead of becoming miserable Store experiences related to how to fulfill their basic psychological needs in their brain

5 Four reasons for choosing depression (based on choice theory)
Keep their anger under control Being anger can lead to violence, but depression does not Get others to help them Depression is a way to get help Excuse the unwillingness to do something more effective To avoid searching for a job Gain powerful control over others Others must do something for them

6 Therapeutic Goals Help clients meet their psychological needs
Assess how well these needs are being met and what changes should take place Take an education approach to help clients meet their needs The more severe the symptom, the more clients are unable to fulfill their needs Clients determine what they want

7 Therapist’s function and Role
Create a good relationship with their clients Challenge clients to evaluate themselves Instill a sense of hope Therapeutic relationship is a mentoring relationship with therapist as a teacher and client as a student.

8 Therapist Attitudes Do not accept excuses No punishment or criticism
But, make a new plan No punishment or criticism But, examine the consequences for not completing the goals; reevaluate the plans and make new ones. Do not give up Change is not an easy process

9 The process of reality therapy
Establish a supportive relationship Explore clients’ needs, wants, and perceptions Evaluate how effective they are in getting what they want Make a plan to do better Make a commitment to plans

10 Reality Therapy Strategies
Questioning Ask what they want and what their plans are. Being positive What the client can do and reinforce positive actions Confrontation Not accept excuses, but continue to make effective plans Paradoxical techniques Reframing: helps a person change the way they think Paradoxical prescriptions: choose to depress at certain times only

11 WDEP W Wants - What do you want to be and do?
D Doing and Direction - What are you doing? E Evaluation - Does your present behavior have a reasonable chance of getting you what you want? P Planning – identify ways to fulfill their wants and needs.

12 SAMIC S Simple - Easy to understand, specific and concrete
A Attainable - Within the capacities and motivation of the client M Measurable -Are the changes observable and helpful? I Immediate and Involved - What can be done today? What can you do? C Controlled - Can you do this by yourself or will you be dependent on others?

13 Research on Reality Therapy
Some research published in the International Journal of Reality Therapy. In general, research on reality therapy is limited A number of studies have been done internationally. In Taiwan, group reality therapy as well as lessons on choice theory have positive effect on experimental group members’ locus of control and self-concept compared to the control group.

14 From a multicultural perspective
Contributions Focusing on acting and thinking reduce resistance to counseling Allowing for a wide range of acceptable behaviors to satisfy needs Limitations Ignoring environmental factors Not appropriate for some cultural values it is not considered a value to ask for what they need (i.e., thinking of what is good for the social group as a whole)

15 Summary and Evaluation --contributions
Insight and awareness are not enough Action and commitment to following through are the core of the therapeutic process Accepting personal responsibility Gaining more effective control Focusing on what they can do in the present to change their behavior

16 Summary and Evaluation --limitations
Not give enough emphasis to Feelings Unconscious Dream Transference the effect of early childhood experiences, the power of the past to influence one’s present personality.

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