2 Basic Beliefs Key person: William Glasser Key theory: Choice theory and control theoryFocus on responsibility for choiceFocus on the unsatisfied needs, which are often the cause of problemsThe only person you can control is yourselfBehavior = an attempt to get what we wantFocus symptoms = avoid facing unsatisfied needs
3 Five basic psychological needs Need for SurvivalTaking care of oneself by eating, drinking…Need for BelongingNeed for love or relationshipNeed for PowerTo be better than othersNeed for FreedomHow we wish to live our lives, express ourselves…Need for FunLaughing, joking, sports, reading…
4 View of Human Nature--people Try to meet basic psychological needsTry to get what they wantIdentify the frustrated need and try to satisfy it.Choose to be miserable instead of becoming miserableStore experiences related to how to fulfill their basic psychological needs in their brain
5 Four reasons for choosing depression (based on choice theory) Keep their anger under controlBeing anger can lead to violence, but depression does notGet others to help themDepression is a way to get helpExcuse the unwillingness to do something more effectiveTo avoid searching for a jobGain powerful control over othersOthers must do something for them
6 Therapeutic Goals Help clients meet their psychological needs Assess how well these needs are being met and what changes should take placeTake an education approach to help clients meet their needsThe more severe the symptom, the more clients are unable to fulfill their needsClients determine what they want
7 Therapist’s function and Role Create a good relationship with their clientsChallenge clients to evaluate themselvesInstill a sense of hopeTherapeutic relationship is a mentoring relationship with therapist as a teacher and client as a student.
8 Therapist Attitudes Do not accept excuses No punishment or criticism But, make a new planNo punishment or criticismBut, examine the consequences for not completing the goals; reevaluate the plans and make new ones.Do not give upChange is not an easy process
9 The process of reality therapy Establish a supportive relationshipExplore clients’ needs, wants, and perceptionsEvaluate how effective they are in getting what they wantMake a plan to do betterMake a commitment to plans
10 Reality Therapy Strategies QuestioningAsk what they want and what their plans are.Being positiveWhat the client can do and reinforce positive actionsConfrontationNot accept excuses, but continue to make effective plansParadoxical techniquesReframing: helps a person change the way they thinkParadoxical prescriptions: choose to depress at certain times only
11 WDEP W Wants - What do you want to be and do? D Doing and Direction - What are you doing?E Evaluation - Does your present behavior have a reasonable chance of getting you what you want?P Planning – identify ways to fulfill their wants and needs.
12 SAMIC S Simple - Easy to understand, specific and concrete A Attainable - Within the capacities and motivation of the clientM Measurable -Are the changes observable and helpful?I Immediate and Involved - What can be done today? What can you do?C Controlled - Can you do this by yourself or will you be dependent on others?
13 Research on Reality Therapy Some research published in the International Journal of Reality Therapy.In general, research on reality therapy is limitedA number of studies have been done internationally.In Taiwan, group reality therapy as well as lessons on choice theory have positive effect on experimental group members’ locus of control and self-concept compared to the control group.
14 From a multicultural perspective ContributionsFocusing on acting and thinking reduce resistance to counselingAllowing for a wide range of acceptable behaviors to satisfy needsLimitationsIgnoring environmental factorsNot appropriate for some cultural valuesit is not considered a value to ask for what they need (i.e., thinking of what is good for the social group as a whole)
15 Summary and Evaluation --contributions Insight and awareness are not enoughAction and commitment to following through are the core of the therapeutic processAccepting personal responsibilityGaining more effective controlFocusing on what they can do in the present to change their behavior
16 Summary and Evaluation --limitations Not give enough emphasis toFeelingsUnconsciousDreamTransferencethe effect of early childhood experiences,the power of the past to influence one’s present personality.