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PREAMBLE: Whereas recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world,
THE POPULATION REGISTRATION ACT— grouped every South African into a particular “race” (white, Indian, Coloured, and Black). Only whites could vote. Those lower down on the list had fewer rights. -- 1950
THE MIXED MARRIAGES ACT—made it a crime for any marriage to take place between whites and any other “racial” group. Only 75 marriages between blacks and whites had been recorded before Apartheid began. -- 1949
THE GROUP AREAS ACT—divided South Africa into different areas where the different “race” groups could live. Of the 3.5 million people who had to leave their homes because of this act, only 2% were white. -- 1950
THE PASS LAWS— required black South Africans over the age of 16 to carry a pass book, known as a dompas, everywhere and at all times. Within the pages of an individual's dompas were his fingerprints, photograph, personal details of employment, permission from the government to be in a particular part of the country, qualifications to work or seek work in the area, and an employer's reports on worker performance and behavior. If the employer, for any reason, refused to endorse the book for the pertinent time period, the worker's right to stay in the area was jeopardized. Without their pass, they were arrested. -- 1952
Employment, housing, travel, property ownership, marriage, public facilities
Article 25. (1) Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control.
Article 26. (1) Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be compulsory. Technical and professional education shall be made generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit. (2) Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms.
Education for Africans: Cheap, Unskilled Labor Made Here “If the native in South Africa today... is being taught to expect that he will live his adult life under a policy of equal rights, he is making a big mistake... There is no place for him in the European community above the level of certain forms of labor." -Hendrik Verwoerd, Minister of Bantu Education
1951 DOLLARS2011 DOLLARS $80 Million $3.56 Billion
Executive Secretary, NAACP
President of World Bank, 1949-1962
World Bank Founding Principles iii... Assisting in raising productivity, [and] the standard of living and conditions of labor in their territories.
Article 13. (1) Everyone has the right to freedom of movement and residence within the borders of each state.
Article 23. (1) Everyone has the right to work, to free choice of employment, to just and favourable conditions of work and to protection against unemployment. (2) Everyone, without any discrimination, has the right to equal pay for equal work. (3) Everyone who works has the right to just and favourable remuneration ensuring for himself and his family an existence worthy of human dignity, and supplemented, if necessary, by other means of social protection. (4) Everyone has the right to form and to join trade unions for the protection of his interests.
The Benefits of World Bank Loans: African Homes Near Johannesburg “On balance, it is likely that Africans have benefited economically more from this growth than other sections of the community,” Eugene Black, President of the World Bank, 1953
Africans Enjoying the Economic Benefits of World Bank Loans to Apartheid South Africa “On balance, it is likely that Africans have benefited economically rather more from this growth than other sections of the community.” Eugene Black, President of the World Bank, 1953
TOTAL LOANS BY 1955 EQUIVALENT IN 2011 DOLLARS $135 Million $4.9 Billion
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