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Indian Wars Chapter 20.

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Presentation on theme: "Indian Wars Chapter 20."— Presentation transcript:

1 Indian Wars Chapter 20

2 Essential Question: How did the Civil War and Reconstruction affect relationships between American Indians and settlers in Texas?

3 Settlements Under Attack
-many settlements were left unguarded because men left to fight in the Civil War -Indians tried to stop westward expansion -after war was over, federal troops tried to protect frontier and several peace treaties failed -as settlers continued to move west, attacks continued -as attacks continued, frontier line began moving back east (instead of west) -Quakers were appointed to act as agents (believed in non-violence) and tried to help Indians to make a living by farming but Indians still went hungry due to poor soil for farming and lack of supplies



6 Chapter 20 Section 2 Essential Question: How did life change for the Plains Indians on reservations? :

7 Reservation Life -Indians began to attack settlements
-1871, Gen. Sherman was sent to investigate Texans’ complaints -Sherman had Indian leaders arrested and sentenced to death-Lawrie Tatum, a Quaker Indian agent, feared this would cause problems -Indian leaders then sentenced to life, and released on parole

8 U.S. Response to Indian Attacks
-U.S. war dept. planned attacks on Indians who refused to stay on reservations -Col. Ranald Mackenzie led a campaign against Comanche group led by Quanah Parker -Parker tried to rescue Comanche prisoners but was unsuccessful -many Comanche abandoned life on the plains and moved back onto Indian reservations

9 Other Threats to Indian Way of Life
- As railroad companies built lines across the Great Plains, hunters killed 100s of buffalos to feed RR crews -railroads made it easier to ship buffalo hides across country which led to the beginning of the buffalo hide industry in 1871

10 CHAPTER 20 SECTION 3 AND 4 Essential Question:
How did the buffalo hunters affect the Indians?

11 INDIAN’S RESPONSE -Quanah Parker and other Indian leaders led a war
to drive out buffalo hunters in 1874 -Indians began a widespread attack in surrounding states as well.

12 U.S. vs. Native Americans -army began a major offensive known as the Red River War -3000 troops and Texas Rangers fought against Indians - Indians had no choice but to move back onto reservations

13 Fighting in other areas
-Apache began attacking Texas from Mexico -U.S. Army ordered more troops to the Rio Grande -many African American troops called Buffalo Soldiers -raids did not stop till Mexican army began to help

14 Effect on Native Americans
-Indians had to give up traditional way of life…buffalo hunting -forced to learn how to farm -had poor land, no farming experience, few supplies which caused them to face starvation -federal government banned religious Indian practices -many held their ceremonies in secret -many Indians continued to speak their language as well as English -Indians worked to preserve their customs, myths, and styles of dress despite the government’s efforts to eliminate them -by the 1880s the Indian population had been greatly reduced -many had been killed or moved out of state -this opened land for farming and ranching for settlers -settlers quickly moved onto lands Indians called home for 100s of years

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