2 Essential Question:How did the Civil War and Reconstruction affect relationships between American Indians and settlers in Texas?
3 Settlements Under Attack -many settlements were left unguarded because men left to fight in the Civil War-Indians tried to stop westward expansion-after war was over, federal troops tried to protect frontier and several peace treaties failed-as settlers continued to move west, attacks continued-as attacks continued, frontier line began moving backeast (instead of west)-Quakers were appointed to act as agents (believed in non-violence) and tried to help Indians to make a living by farming but Indians still went hungry due to poor soil for farming and lack of supplies
6 Chapter 20 Section 2Essential Question: How did life change for the Plains Indians on reservations?:
7 Reservation Life -Indians began to attack settlements -1871, Gen. Sherman was sent to investigate Texans’ complaints-Sherman had Indian leaders arrested and sentenced to death-Lawrie Tatum, a Quaker Indian agent, feared this would cause problems-Indian leaders then sentenced to life, and released on parole
8 U.S. Response to Indian Attacks -U.S. war dept. planned attacks on Indians who refused to stay on reservations-Col. Ranald Mackenzie led a campaign against Comanche group led by Quanah Parker-Parker tried to rescue Comanche prisoners but was unsuccessful-many Comanche abandoned life on the plains and moved back onto Indian reservations
9 Other Threats to Indian Way of Life - As railroad companies built lines across the Great Plains, hunters killed 100s of buffalos to feed RR crews-railroads made it easierto ship buffalo hidesacross country which ledto the beginning of thebuffalo hide industry in 1871
10 CHAPTER 20 SECTION 3 AND 4 Essential Question: How did the buffalo hunters affect the Indians?
11 INDIAN’S RESPONSE -Quanah Parker and other Indian leaders led a war to drive out buffalo huntersin 1874-Indians began a widespreadattack in surrounding statesas well.
12 U.S. vs. Native Americans-army began a major offensive known as the Red River War-3000 troops and Texas Rangers fought against Indians- Indians had no choice but to move back onto reservations
13 Fighting in other areas -Apache began attacking Texas from Mexico-U.S. Army ordered more troops to the Rio Grande-many African American troops called Buffalo Soldiers-raids did not stop till Mexican army began to help
14 Effect on Native Americans -Indians had to give up traditional way of life…buffalo hunting-forced to learn how to farm-had poor land, no farming experience, few supplies which caused them to face starvation-federal government banned religious Indian practices-many held their ceremonies in secret-many Indians continued to speak their language as well as English-Indians worked to preserve their customs, myths, and styles of dress despite the government’s efforts to eliminate them-by the 1880s the Indian population had been greatly reduced-many had been killed or moved out of state-this opened land for farming and ranching for settlers-settlers quickly moved onto lands Indians called home for 100s of years