Presentation on theme: "ECOSYSTEMS Chapter 2 Section 2. What is an ecosystem? The interaction of plants and animals and the physical environment where they live. Many factors."— Presentation transcript:
What is an ecosystem? The interaction of plants and animals and the physical environment where they live. Many factors affect an ecosystem. Climate Sunlight Temperature Precipitation Elevation Soil Landforms.
How does change in one aspect lead to change in another aspect? Ecosystems can be delicately balanced, so if there is a change, it can affect the animals and other plants in that ecosystem Cutting down trees could endanger squirrels and other animals that rely on acorns for food. Catching too many of one kind of fish could lead to a decline in population for another kind of fish due to lack of food. Humans have affected ecosystems Grassland is now farmland Decline in buffalo population Some species thrive because of human involvement In suburban U.S. deer eat grass and bushes Raccoons go through trash cans.
What is a Biome? A type of ecosystem that is found in various regions throughout the world. For example, a deciduous forest is a biome. Same type of ecosystem, but is found all around the world. Rainforests contain all kind of life, but only occur in small areas around the world. Known as broadleaf evergreens Emergent Layer Canopy Understory Forest Floor
Deciduous Forest Made up of trees that grow or lose leaves depending on the season. Exist in mid-latitude forests. Most of North America and Europe and parts of China have deciduous trees. Grow in areas with plenty of rain, warm summers and cold or cool winters. Continental climates.
Coniferous Forest Exists in colder parts of the mid- latitudes Can survive long, cold winters Have “needles” rather than broad flat leaves. Reduces the amount of surface exposed to the cold so it helps them survive the winter better. Called coniferous after the “cones” that protect their seeds.
Chaparral Includes small evergreens and low bushes or “Scrub”. Spanish word for “an area of underbrush and small trees” Grow mostly in areas with a wet winter and hot, dry summers. Leathery leaves to help hold in the moisture Found in the Mediterranean, southern California, Chile, South Africa and Australia.
Types of Grasslands There are two types of grasslands Tropical Grasslands Also known as Savannas- Found in Africa Grow tall and green during the rainy season Die and turn brown during the dry season Wildfires help the grasslands to grow by adding nutrients and releasing seeds. Populated by plant eating animals – Herbivores And meat eating animals – Carnivores
Types of Grasslands Temperate Grasslands Exist in cooler parts of the world and are also known in North America as prairies. Grow taller in areas with more rain. Most of the American prairies were plowed under for farmland to grow wheat. In Northeastern Eurasia and Central Asia, these grasslands are called steppes which means “treeless plain”
Characteristics of Desert plants. Think about: Size Protection Reproduction
Characteristics of Desert animals Think about: Color Adaptations Size What they eat
Tundra Always cold and have a layer of frozen soil just below the surface called “Permafrost” Few plants can grow here Usually small plants (no trees) Brightly colored plants called lichens grow on rocks. Plants have to adapt to cold temperature and little sunlight Can have many brightly colored plants, mosses and lichens Some plants have developed large leaves to absorb as much sun as possible. Any animals that live her have thick fur and eat constantly to build up fat reserves for when food is scarce.