2 SterilizationSterilization is defined as the process where all the living microorganisms, including bacterial spores are killedSterilization can be achieved by physical and chemical means.Chemicals used as sterilizing agents are called chemi-sterilants.
3 Sterilization is an absolute condition while disinfection is not Disinfection is the process of elimination of most pathogenic microorganisms (excluding bacterial spores) on inanimate objects.Disinfection can be achieved by physical or chemical methods. Chemicals used in disinfection are called disinfectants.Different disinfectants have different target ranges, not all disinfectants can kill all microorganisms.Some methods of disinfection such as filtration do not kill bacteria, they separate them out.Sterilization is an absolute condition while disinfection is not
4 Decontamination is the process of removal of contaminating pathogenic microorganisms from the articles by a process of sterilization or disinfection.It is the use of physical or chemical means to remove, inactivate, or destroy living organisms on a surface so that the organisms are no longer infectious.Sanitization is the process of chemical or mechanical cleansing, applicable in public health systems.Usually used by the food industry. It reduces microbes on eating utensils to safe, acceptable levels for public health.Asepsis is the employment of techniques (such as usage of gloves, air filters, uv rays etc) to achieve microbe-free environment.
5 Antisepsis is the use of chemicals (antiseptics) to make skin or mucus membranes devoid of pathogenic microorganisms.Bacteriostasis is a condition where the multiplication of the bacteria is inhibited without killing them.Bactericidal is that chemical that can kill or inactivate bacteria. Such chemicals may be called variously depending on the spectrum of activity, such as bactericidal, virucidal, fungicidal, microbicidal, sporicidal, tuberculocidal or germicidal.Antibiotics are substances produced by one microbe that inhibits or kills another microbe. Often the term is used more generally to include synthetic and semi-synthetic antimicrobial agents.
6 Factors that influence the degree of killing Types of organismsNumber of organismsConcentration of disinfecting agentPresence of organic material (e.g., serum, blood)Nature (composition) of surface to be disinfectedContact timeTemperaturepHBiofilmsCompatibility of disinfectants and sterilants
7 Types of organismsOrganisms vary in their ability to withstand chemical and physical treatment, e.g.,-Spores–have coats rich in proteins, lipids and carbohydrates-Mycobacteria–cell walls are rich in lipids-Biofilms -microorganisms living together in communities-Prions–the most resistant known organisms to the action of heat, chemicals, and radiation !!!Prions can withstand temp. exceeding 121C for several hours while immersed in acid or basic solutions
8 Different types of organisms and their resistance to killing agents
9 Number of organismsMicrobial load-the total number of organisms which determine the exposure time of killing agent-is composed of organisms with varying degrees of susceptibility to killing agents-not all organisms die at the same time-the death curve is logarithmic!!!-higher numbers of organisms require longer exposure
10 Concentration of disinfecting agent a proper concentration of disinfecting agents ensure the activation of target organisms, e.g.,-povidone-iodine should be dilluted with water before use because there is not enough free iodine to kill microorganisms in concentrated solution
11 Presence of organic material (such as blood, mucus, pus) affects killing activity by inactivating the disinfecting agent, e.g,-by coating the surface to be treated, prevents full contact between object and agent (Glutaraldehyde)-easily inactivate bleach (Sodium hypochlorite)For optimal killing activity, instruments and surfaces should be cleansed of excess organic material before disinfection !!!
12 Nature (composition) of surface to be disinfected some medical instruments are manufactured of biomaterials that exclude the use of certain disinfection and sterlization methods because of possible damage, e.g.,-endoscopic instruments cannot be sterilized by the heat in an autoclave
13 Contact timethe amount of time a disinfectant or sterilant is in contact with the object is critical e.g.,-Betadine (alcohol and iodine) must be in contact with object for at least 1 to 2 min. to kill microorganism.-the spores of bacteria and fungi need a much longer time
14 Temperature Disinfectants are generally used at room temp. (20-22ᵒC) their activity is increased by an increased temp.and decreased by a drop in temp.
15 pHThe pH of the material to be desinfected or sterilized can have an effect on the activity of disinfecting or sterilizing agent
16 Biofilms communities of microorganisms can be on a surface of either inanimate or animate objects, e.g.,-catheters (criticial place!), pipes that carry water and dionizing colums used to make processed watermake disinfection more difficultthe concentration of the disinfectant and the contact time need to be increased
17 Compatibility of disinfectants a common mistake is to believe that two disinfectants are better than one !some of them may inactivate other, e.g.,-the bleach and quaternary ammonium compound together negate the activity of both
19 Physical methods Pasteurisation do not kill spores -LTH(low temperature holding) batch method-63-65Cfor 30min.-UHT(ultra-high temperature) -135C for 1-2 sec.-HTST(high temperature short time)flash method-72C for 15 sec.Application: in the food industry, eliminating food-born pathogens without affecting the taste (e.g. UHT milk)
21 Chemical agents Alcohols -ethanol 70%,isopropanol 70%, propanol 60% -inactivate microorganisms by denaturing proteins-wide spectrum againts bacteria and fungi but not sporocidal!-tuberculocidal and virucidal for most viruses (15 min.)-alcohols may be contaminated with spores –should be filtered through a 0,22 μm filter-the most effective concentrations are between 60%-90% (water is needed in chemical reactions)Application: surgical and hygienic disinfectionof the skin and hands
22 Chemical agents Aldehydes -formaldehyde ( HCHO)the most imporatant -is a water-soluble gas -formalin (35% solution of this gas in water) or glutaraldehyde (disinfectant and sterilizer!!!)-denaturate proteins and nucleic acids-irretate mucosa, skin contact may result inflamations or allergic eczemas-broad-septrum: againts bacteria, fungi, and viruses-chemosterilizerin higher concetrations (sporicidial)Application: -disinfectionof surfaces and objects (plastic and rubber items)-thesterilizerof choice for heat-sensitive medical equipment
23 Chemical agents Phenols -Lister was the first to use phenol (carbolic acid)-today, chemically substituted with organic goups by halogens, alkyl, phenyl and benzyl groups-denaturate proteins-irritate the skin, corrosive-broad-spectrum, but not sporocidal, not virucidalApplication: widely used, disinfection of hospital, institutional, and household enviroment (soaps)
24 STERILIZATION AND DISINFECTION Sterilization methodsDisinfection methodsPhysical methods•Moist heat in autoclaves•Dry-heat in ovens•Gamma irradiaton•Filtration•Plasma sterilizationChemical agents•Ethylene oxide•Glutaraldehye (high concentration)Chemical agents•Alcohols•Aldehydes•Halogens•Phenols•Surfactants•Heavy metals•Dyes•OxidantsPhysical methods•Boiling and pasteurisation•Ultraviolet radiation