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Chapter Overview Understanding DHCP Configuring a DHCP Server

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1 Chapter Overview Understanding DHCP Configuring a DHCP Server
Troubleshooting DHCP

2 Understanding DHCP Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is a service and a protocol that work together to automatically assign Internet Protocol (IP) addresses and other Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) configuration settings to computers on a network. DHCP overcomes the limitations of manually configuring TCP/IP clients and tracking IP addresses.

3 DHCP Overview DHCP dynamically assigns IP addresses to clients from a pool. Each time a DHCP client starts, it requests IP addressing information from a DHCP server. When a DHCP server receives the request, it selects IP addressing information from a pool of addresses (called a scope) and offers it to the DHCP client. If the client accepts the offer, the IP addressing information is leased to the client for a specified time.

4 DHCP Overview (Cont.) As the lease interval progresses, the client computer renews the address assignment each time the computer is started. If the lease expires without a renewal, the IP address is returned to the pool for reassignment. DHCP is based on open standards published by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF).

5 DHCP Client/Server Interaction

6 Manual vs. Automatic Configuration
Configuring TCP/IP manually on client computers has many limitations. Errors in assigning or typing IP addresses can lead to difficult-to-trace network problems. Manual configuration requires a large amount of administrative maintenance. Using DHCP to automatically configure IP addressing information overcomes all of these limitations.

7 DHCP Address Allocation Types
The core function of DHCP is to assign IP addresses. There are three types of IP address allocation: manual, automatic, and dynamic. Manual allocation: an administrator assigns a specific IP address for the DHCP server to provide to a specific DHCP client. This method is necessary for some computers that require permanently assigned IP addresses.

8 DHCP Address Allocation Types (Cont.)
Automatic allocation: the DHCP server supplies clients with IP addresses taken from a common pool, and the clients permanently retain the assigned addresses. This method works well when computers are rarely moved. Dynamic allocation: the DHCP server supplies IP addresses to clients from a pool on a leased basis. The client must periodically renew the lease or the address expires and is returned to the pool. Most DHCP installations use dynamic allocation.

9 How DHCP Works A typical transaction between a DHCP client and server has four phases: DHCPDISCOVER: the DHCP client requests configuration parameters from a DHCP server. DHCPOFFER: the DHCP server offers IP addressing information to the requesting client. DHCPREQUEST: the client accepts or renews an IP address assignment. DHCPACK: the DHCP server acknowledges the client’s acceptance of an offered IP address.

10 DHCP Client/Server Communications

11 DHCP Communications When a DHCP client computer is booted, it initiates communication with a DHCP server by generating a series of DHCPDISCOVER broadcast messages. At this point, the client has no IP address and is said to be in the init state. The client’s broadcasts are limited to the local subnet unless a DHCP relay agent is used, in which case the broadcasts are relayed to DHCP servers on other subnets.

12 DHCP Communications (Cont.)
When a DHCP server receives a DHCPDISCOVER message from a client, it generates a DHCPOFFER message containing IP addressing information and other optional TCP/IP parameters. The client might receive DHCPOFFER messages from multiple DHCP servers. The client accepts one of the offered IP addresses by generating a DHCPREQUEST broadcast message that contains The address of the server that offered the address The offered IP address

13 DHCP Communications (Cont.)
When the server receives the DHCPREQUEST, it Commits the offered IP addressing information to its database Sends a DHCPACK message to the client, acknowledging the completion of the process If the server cannot complete the address assignment, it transmits a DHCPNAK message to the client and the process begins again. Finally, the client performs an Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) test to ensure that no other system on the network is using the assigned IP address.

14 DHCP Leasing When a DHCP server dynamically allocates settings, the client leases its IP address for a specified time and must renew the lease to continue using it. An IP address lease is typically measured in days. The lease renewal process begins when a bound client reaches renewal time value (or T1 value) of its lease and begins generating DHCPREQUEST unicast messages to the server that holds the lease.

15 DHCP Leasing (Cont.) If the DHCP server is available, it responds with one of the following messages: A DHCPACK message, which renews the lease and restarts the lease timer A DHCPNAK message, which terminates the lease and forces the client to begin again If the server does not respond, the client begins transmitting DHCPREQUEST broadcast messages, soliciting an address assignment from any DHCP server on the network. If the lease expires The client’s IP address is released All of the client’s TCP/IP communication ceases, except for DHCPDISCOVER broadcast transmissions

16 The DHCP Lease Renewal Process

17 Releasing an IP Address
A DHCP client can terminate an IP address lease at any time by transmitting a DHCPRELEASE message to the DHCP server. On a computer running Microsoft Windows 2000, use the Ipconfig.exe utility to manually release the client computer’s IP address. On a computer running Microsoft Windows Me, Microsoft Windows 98, or Microsoft Windows 95, use the Winipcfg.exe utility.

18 When No DHCP Servers Are Online
If there is no response from a DHCP server, a client computer running Windows 2000 uses Automatic Private IP Addressing to automatically assign itself an IP address and subnet mask. The IP address is from the range through The subnet mask is The client continues to check for a DHCP server every five minutes. If it contacts a DHCP server, the client abandons its autoconfigured IP address.

19 Installing a DHCP Server
Before installing DHCP on a server, consider these questions: Will all of the computers on the network be DHCP clients? Will a DHCP server supply IP addresses to multiple local area networks (LANs)? How many DHCP servers are required? What IP addressing options will clients obtain from a DHCP server? Use Add/Remove Programs to install a DHCP server. The computer running the DHCP Server service should not be a DHCP client. You should manually configure a DHCP server.

20 DHCP Relay Agent When a router running a DHCP relay agent receives broadcasts from DHCP clients, it relays them to DHCP servers on other subnets. A DHCP relay agent enables a single DHCP server to support clients on multiple subnets. You should not configure a server running the DHCP Server service to function as a DHCP relay agent as well. To add the DHCP Relay Agent to a computer running Windows 2000 Server that acts as a router, use Routing And Remote Access.

21 Lesson Summary DHCP is a service and a protocol that work together to automatically assign IP addresses and other TCP/IP configuration settings to computers on a network. DHCP can allocate IP addresses in three ways: manual allocation, automatic allocation, and dynamic allocation. A typical transaction between a DHCP client and server has four phases: DHCPDISCOVER, DHCPOFFER, DHCPREQUEST, and DHCPACK. A DHCP relay agent relays DHCP and Bootstrap Protocol (BOOTP) messages between clients and servers located on different subnets.

22 Configuring a DHCP Server
As an administrator, you need to know how to Authorize a DHCP server Create and manage DHCP scopes Configure additional DHCP options Activate a scope Implement multiple DHCP servers

23 Installing and Configuring a DHCP Server
After you install the DHCP Server service on a computer running Windows 2000 Server, you must configure the server before it can assign TCP/IP settings to clients. To implement DHCP: 1. Install the Microsoft DHCP Server service Authorize the DHCP server Create an IP address scope and activate it Configure DHCP options.

24 Authorizing a DHCP Server
When a misconfigured or unauthorized DHCP server (called a rogue server) is introduced on a network, it can cause problems. To avoid the problem of rogue DHCP servers, DHCP servers on a Windows 2000 network must be authorized in the Active Directory service before they can service clients. All Windows 2000 DHCP servers must be either domain controllers or member servers to be authorized in Active Directory and provide DHCP service to clients. You can authorize a DHCP server by using the DHCP console.

25 The Manage Authorized Servers Dialog Box

26 Creating a DHCP Scope When creating a DHCP scope, consider the following: You must create a least one scope for every DHCP server. You must exclude any static IP addresses you manually assign from the scope. You must create a separate scope for each subnet. You can create only one scope for each subnet on a DHCP server. DHCP servers do not share scope information.

27 Creating a DHCP Scope (Cont.)
Depending on the starting and ending IP addresses for your scope, the DHCP console suggests a default subnet mask. If your network requires a different subnet mask, you can modify this value. Use the DHCP console to create a DHCP scope.

28 The IP Address Range Page of the New Scope Wizard

29 The Lease Duration Page of the New Scope Wizard

30 Managing DHCP Scopes A new scope in the DHCP console has four subheadings: Address Pool: lists the IP addresses in the scope Address Leases: lists the IP addresses that are currently leased by clients on the network Reservations: contains IP address assignments for specific computers on the network Scope Options: contains DHCP options that are assigned to clients obtaining IP addresses from the scope

31 Configuring Additional Options
You can configure DHCP options to supply client computers with TCP/IP configuration parameters in addition to IP addresses and subnet masks. Commonly used DHCP options are 003 Router 006 DNS Servers 015 DNS Domain Name 044 WINS/NBNS Servers 046 WINS/NBT Node Type

32 Configuring Additional Options (Cont.)
Options can be configured at the server or scope level. Use the DHCP console to configure additional DHCP options. To configure options for a server, right-click the Server Options heading, and then click Configure Options. To configure options for a scope, right-click the Scope Options heading, and then click Configure Options.

33 The DHCP Scope Options Dialog Box

34 Configuring the Router in the Scope Options Dialog Box

35 Activating a Scope You must activate the scope before it can begin servicing clients. If you have not already done so with the New Scope Wizard, you can use the DHCP console to activate a scope. In the DHCP console, right-click the scope you want to activate, and then click Activate.

36 Implementing Multiple DHCP Servers
If your internetwork requires multiple DHCP servers Create a unique scope for each subnet on each server Use a router that functions as a DHCP relay agent to connect the networks Each DHCP server should have A scope containing about 75 percent of the available IP addresses for the local subnet A scope for each remote subnet containing about 25 percent of the available IP addresses for a subnet

37 Lesson Summary On a Windows 2000 network, a DHCP server must be authorized in Active Directory before it can service clients. DHCP must be installed on a Windows 2000 domain controller or member server in order to be authorized. Use the DHCP console to Create and activate a scope Configure DHCP options, such as routers and Domain Name System (DNS) servers, for a scope or for a server

38 Troubleshooting DHCP The most common DHCP client problem is a failure to obtain an IP address from a DHCP server. The most common DHCP server problems are The inability to start the DHCP Server service on the network The failure of clients to obtain TCP/IP configuration settings from a working server

39 Preventing DHCP Problems
Many DHCP problems involve incorrect or missing configuration details. To prevent the most common DHCP problems Use the 75/25 design rule for balancing scope distribution of addresses when multiple DHCP servers are used to service the same scope Use superscopes for multiple DHCP servers on each subnet in a LAN environment Use server-side conflict detection on DHCP servers only when it is needed

40 Preventing DHCP Problems (Cont.)
To prevent the most common DHCP problems (Cont.) Create reservations on all DHCP servers that can potentially service the reserved client For server performance, remember that DHCP is disk-intensive and purchase appropriate hardware Keep audit logging enabled for troubleshooting use Integrate DHCP with other services, such as Windows Internet Name Service (WINS) and DNS Use the appropriate number of DHCP servers for the number of DHCP-enabled clients on the network

41 Troubleshooting DHCP Clients
Most DHCP-related problems present themselves as a failed IP configuration attempt by a client, so you should start DHCP troubleshooting at the client. If a DHCP-related problem does not originate at the client, check the system event log and DHCP server audit logs for clues.

42 Invalid IP Address Configuration
If a DHCP client does not have an IP address configured, or has an IP address of x.x, the client cannot contact a DHCP server to obtain an IP address. Ensure that The client has a functioning network connection: check cables, network interface adapters, etc. Networking software components are installed The Obtain An IP Address Automatically option is selected in the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties dialog box

43 Missing Configuration Settings
If a DHCP client is missing configuration settings, the DHCP server might not be configured to supply those options, or the client might not support the options distributed by the server. Verify that the options have been configured at either the server or scope level. Ensure that the DHCP option selections are appropriate for your clients.

44 DHCP Servers Do Not Provide IP Addresses
If clients can access the network but cannot obtain IP addresses from a DHCP server, there are several possible causes: The IP address of the DHCP server might have changed. If DHCP clients must go through a router to use a DHCP server, a DHCP relay agent might not be available. If multiple DHCP servers are used, they might have overlapping scopes.

45 Troubleshooting DHCP Servers
When a DHCP server fails, clients experience TCP/IP problems or errors. First, ensure that the DHCP Server service is running on the server. If the service is not started, try to start it manually. Notice the service’s startup type (Manual or Automatic). Check the logs in Event Viewer to determine if the service failed to start or stopped because of a problem elsewhere in the computer.

46 DHCP Relay Agent Service Is Installed But Not Working
Because both the DHCP Relay Agent and the DHCP Server service listen for and respond to BOOTP and DHCP messages sent using User Datagram Protocol (UDP) ports 67 and 68, neither service works reliably if both are installed on the same computer. Install the DHCP Relay Agent and the DHCP Server service on separate computers running Windows 2000 Server.

47 DHCP Console Incorrectly Reports Lease Expirations
When the DHCP console displays the lease expiration time for reserved clients for a scope, it indicates one of the following: If the scope lease time is set to an infinite lease time, the reserved client’s lease is also shown as infinite. If the scope lease time is set to a finite length of time, the reserved client’s lease uses this same lease time. To create reserved clients with unlimited lease durations, create a scope with an unlimited lease duration and add reservations to that scope.

48 DHCP Server Uses Broadcasts to Respond to All Client Messages
By default, a Windows 2000 DHCP server attempts to transmit all DHCP responses to the limited broadcast address ( ). You can Configure the server’s registry so that it will recognize the broadcast flag of a DHCP client Adjust its transmission behavior to send a unicast or broadcast response to the client, depending on the flag setting in the client request

49 DHCP Server Fails to Issue Address Leases for a New Scope
When superscopes are not used, only a single DHCP scope can be active on the network at one time, even if more than one scope is defined and activated. If you want clients to receive IP addresses from a new scope, do one of the following: Configure the DHCP server to use a superscope that includes the old scope and the new scope. Change the primary IP address for the DHCP server so that it has the same network identifier as the new scope.

50 Monitoring Server Performance
Monitoring the performance of a Windows 2000 DHCP server can help in troubleshooting performance problems. The Windows 2000 DHCP server performance counters can monitor All types of DHCP messages sent and received by the DHCP Server service The average amount of processing time spent by the DHCP server per message packet sent and received The number of message packets dropped because of internal delays on the DHCP server

51 Lesson Summary Most DHCP problems present themselves as a failure of clients to obtain IP addressing information from a DHCP server. When troubleshooting clients, ensure that The network connection is functioning The client is configured to obtain its IP address by using a DHCP server When troubleshooting a DHCP server, make sure that the DHCP Server service is running. To ensure that both services operate properly, install the DHCP Relay Agent service and the DHCP Server service on separate computers running Windows 2000 Server.

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