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United States and International Organizations.  Factors like climate change pollution and trade all affect countries.  Nations often hold talks with.

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Presentation on theme: "United States and International Organizations.  Factors like climate change pollution and trade all affect countries.  Nations often hold talks with."— Presentation transcript:

1 United States and International Organizations

2  Factors like climate change pollution and trade all affect countries.  Nations often hold talks with one another to discuss these matters.  Diplomats, or officials who represent their country`s government, meet and try to work out ways to address common concerns.

3  Countries form organizations to address international issues.  These are called governmental organizations.  Diplomats sometimes agree on a course of action.  When they meet regularly, they discuss problems, and try to find solutions.  The government of each member nation must agree to follow the rules of the organization and to support its decisions.  A certain number of the member nations must approve the admission of a nation that wishes to become a member of the organization.  Some governmental organizations are formed for a single purpose.  The North Atlantic Treaty Organization was first created for the defense of its member nations.

4  The goal of the World Trade Organization is to address issues of trade and finance among nations.  The largest governmental organization is the United Nations.  It has many goals, promoting peace, fighting disease, building schools, and improving health care.  The UN also provides a place where they can present their own point of view.  Governmental organizations can create major changes in the world.  The European Union set up a common unit of money for most of its members, the Euro.

5  There are also international organizations that are not linked to any government.  They are formed by private citizens.  These are called nongovernmental organizations.  NGOs often work with governmental organizations to provide relief in the event of a natural disaster, such as the earthquake in Haiti.  These organizations depend on volunteers and private donations.  Some countries may accept aid for their people from NGOs that they would not accept from an organization connected with governments.  The International Committee of the Red Cross serves people in need on both sides in a war.

6  United Nations, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, World Trade Organization, World Health Organization, Peace Corps, International Committee of the Red Cross are all international organizations.

7  The UN was founded in 1945, just after WWII.  Its main goal was to keep peace among the nations.  The General Assembly is the main forum of the UN`s 192 member nations.  A smaller body called the security council deals with immediate threats to world peace.  The security council has four permanent members.  United States, United Kingdom, France, and China, (Russia used to be a member).  Ten other members are elected to two-year terms by the General Assembly.  The UN has a number of units to handle other issues.  The UN`s International Court of Justice, also called the World Court, settles legal disputes between nations.  The United Nations Children`s Fund (UNICEF) works to improve the lives of children around the world.  The United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) promotes science, education, and culture.

8  NATO is a group of 28 nations in North America and Europe.  Its main goals are to keep peace and defend all members in times of war.  NATO members send armed forces to an area where there is a crisis.  NATO sent forces to Afghanistan in 2001 and to Iraq in 2003.  NATO also works with nonmember nations to help prevent conflict.

9  The WTO has more than 150 member nations from around the world.  The goal is to promote free trade.  It encourages member nations to remove any trade barriers.  The WTO also tries to resolve disputes between countries if they arise.

10  WHO is part of the United Nations.  It directs the UN`s efforts to fight and prevent disease in nations around the world.  WHO has formed standards for countries to meet and promote their people`s health.  It helps countries meet these standards.  The WHO also conducts research on public health issues.  They have helped end smallpox and taught about the HIV virus.  The WHO achieved a 99 percent decrease in cases of polio around the world.  In Africa, the WHO has helped reduce a disease called river blindness.

11  Peace Corps is a volunteer group run by the US government.  It began in the 1960s when the President John F. Kennedy challenged students to make a difference for peace in the world.  The original goal of the Corps was to help Americans and the people of the other nations understand each other.  The Peace Corps has almost 8,000 members volunteers working in 77 countries.  These volunteers work on several kinds of projects.  Some work on public health issues such as providing people with clean water.  Some teach people ways to use modern technology and help them with local business development.

12  The ICRC is based in Switzerland, and united the efforts of aid countries around the world.  The ICRC gives aid to those who are victims of war or natural disasters.  The group tires to protect civilians and to make sure that prisoners of war are treated well.  Prisoners of war are soldiers captures by enemy forces during a conflict.  It also brings food, clothing, and medicines to people in need in war- torn areas.  The ICRC maintains a neutral position.  It does not take sides in a war. 

13  Those that focus on public health, feeding the hungry, fighting disease, or promoting economic development typically work in developing nations.  Those that focus on the environmental problems may be active anywhere in the world.  Some try to protect human rights.  They tend to focus on nations with harsh governments.

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