Jury Members People who are 18 years or older who are registered voters or have drivers licenses. Cannot be a felon, mentally or physically incompetent and must be able to understand English. You receive $12 for the first day, $20 for days two-five and $40 a day for after the first 5 days. You with a group of 11 other people decide the guilt or innocence of a person.
United States Level of Courts District (94 courts) Appellate (13) Supreme (1) Almost all cases start in the District Court! If you forget the order Mr. Neanover will be S.A.D
US District Court Judges They have tenure- job for life They hear federal criminal and civil cases first. Salary: $174,000
Appellate Court Judges Yearly Salary $184,500 They review decisions made in lower district courts. Have appellate jurisdiction. Power to rule on whether the defendant’s rights were protected or whether he or she received a fair trial. We are the 4 th Circuit.
Supreme Court Justices $213900 Associate Justices $223,500 US Supreme Court Chief Justice Only 9 Justices. New openings happen due to resignation or death of a justice. Have always been lawyers.
Vocabulary O Precedent- a model upon which to base a decision on a similar case O Opinion- a detailed explanation of the legal thinking behind a courts decision. O Tenure-Having a job for life, meaning you retire or die.
Qualifications of Judges O No particular qualifications!? O But Presidents usually appoint judges who share their ideas about politics and justice. O Approved by the Senate.
Supreme Court Organization There are 9 Justices – 1 Chief – 8 Associate – Congress has the power to change this Duties – Hear and rule on cases. – Write a written explanation for the decision called an Opinion. The President appoints the Supreme Court Justices when one retires or dies.
Supreme Court Powers The other branches must follow the Supreme Courts rulings. Judicial Review – Power to review any federal, state, or local law to determine if it is constitutional (Follows the constitution).
Marbury v. Madison 1803 court case that established the Supreme Court had the power to decide whether laws were constitutional. Judicial Review established that: – Constitution is supreme law of the land – If a law contradicts the constitution, constitution wins. – Judicial Branch should uphold the constitution.
Limits Supreme Court needs the executive branch to enforce decisions. – Andrew Jackson did not do this in Worcester v. Georgia. – Congress can always make new laws to get around it. Court can only hear and make rulings on cases that come to it. Only accepts questions that involve a federal question.
Back row (left to right): Sonia Sotomayor, Stephen G. Breyer, Samuel A. Alito, and Elena Kagan. Front row (left to right): Clarence Thomas, Antonin Scalia, Chief Justice John G. Roberts, Anthony Kennedy, and Ruth Bader Ginsburg
How do the People on the Supreme Court Lean politically? O Liberal O Sonia Sotomayor O Ruth Bader Ginsburg O Elena Kagan O Stephen Breyer Conservatives – Anthony Kennedy (Swing) – Clarence Thomas – (Chief Justice) John Roberts – Antonin Scalia – Samuel Alito
Median Retirement Age 78.7 Antonin Scalia 3/11/1936 Age: 76 yr 7 mo Ronald Reagan 9/26/1986 Served: 26 yr 1 mo Anthony Kennedy 7/23/1936 Age: 76 yr 3 mo Ronald Reagan 2/18/1988 Served: 24 yr 8 mo Clarence Thomas 6/23/1948 Age: 64 yr 4 mo George H. W. Bush 10/23/1991 Served: 21 yr 0 mo Ruth Bader Ginsburg 3/15/1933 Age: 79 yr 7 mo Bill Clinton 8/19/1993 Served: 19 yr 2 mo Stephen Breyer 8/15/1938 Age: 74 yr 2 mo Bill Clinton 8/3/1994 Served: 18 yr 2 mo John G. Roberts 1/27/1955 Age: 57 yr 9 mo George W. Bush 9/29/2005 Served: 7 yr 1 mo Samuel A. Alito, Jr. 4/1/1950 Age: 62 yr 7 mo George W. Bush 1/31/2006 Served: 6 yr 9 mo Sonia Sotomayor 6/25/1954 Age: 58 yr 4 mo Barack Obama 8/8/2009 Served: 3 yr 2 mo Elena Kagan 4/28/1960 Age: 52 yr 6 mo Barack Obama 8/7/2010 Served: 2 yr 2 mo