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James thinks you can’t see him now.

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Presentation on theme: "James thinks you can’t see him now."— Presentation transcript:

1 James thinks you can’t see him now.

2 Today’s session You are learning about... You are learning to...
Piaget’s preoperational stage (pre-conceptual period) Tests of egocentric thinking Compare and criticise ways of investigating infant cognition

3 Piaget’s Stage Theory of Cognitive Development
Characteristics Typical Age Sensorimotor stage Substages 1-3 Ability to deal with situations is limited to: i) Having sensations and producing actions; ii) The ‘here and now’ 0-8 months Substages 4-6 Intentional actions emerge; trial and error behaviour; object concept – object permanence develops; simple pretend play; language acquisition 8-24 months Preoperational stage Preconceptual period Symbolic thought develops; egocentrism; animism; centration 2-4 years Intuitive period Judgements based on appearance not logical thought; less egocentric; unable to conserve 4-7 years Concrete operational stage Conservation; seriation; transitivity; class inclusion 7-11 years Formal operational stage Abstract concepts; hypothetical thinking; flexibility in thinking 12+ years

4 Pre-operational stage
Children form internal mental representations and think by manipulating them They lack operations – abstract rules that underpin adult logical thinking As a result their thinking tends to be inconsistent and irrational from an adult’s perspective

5 Pre-operational stage
Limitations on a pre-operational child’s thinking include: Egocentrism Animism Centration Children continue to develop their internal representations of the world through adaptation and accommodation of new experiences This one is named in the spec so you need to know lots about it.

6 Egocentrism

7 According to Piaget... Young children do not understand that others have a different view of the world from theirs They assume that anyone else can see what they can see This egocentrism does not disappear fully until the child is 7 or 8 years old.

8 Three tests of egocentrism
Three mountains task (Piaget & Inhelder, 1956) Turntable task (Borke, 1975) Boy and policemen task (Hughes, 1975)

9 Three tests of egocentrism
You need to know: What is the procedure for the test? What do the results suggest about egocentrism? Ask yourselves: Is this a fair test of egocentrism? Are there features that make it easy/hard?

10 Compare the tests Make sure everyone understands all three, then ask yourselves: What are the similarities and differences? Which is the fairest test of egocentrism and why? What are the strengths and weaknesses of each? What implications do the results have for Piaget’s theory?

11 Three mountains task Involves unfamiliar materials and situation
Makes heavy demands on working memory Requires the child to respond in a difficult way

12 Turntable task Children have a chance to practise
Uses familiar characters, materials & situation Makes it easy for the child to respond

13 Boy and policemen task Children have a chance to practise
Only requires the child to consider what can be seen, not how it will look The task has ‘human sense’ – the motives and intentions of the characters are clear (Donaldson, 1978)

14 Tests of egocentrism Piaget’s methods make it difficult for younger children to respond correctly – consequently he underestimates their abilities Children may not fully overcome egocentrism until 7yrs but they start to do so much earlier

15 Homework Write an evaluation of Piaget and Inhelder’s (1956) ‘three mountains’ test of egocentrism. In your evaluation include: Reference to competence and performance Alternative ways of testing egocentrism Implications for Piaget’s theory

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