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**Copyright (c) 2004 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.**

The Integral chapter6 The Indefinite Integral Substitution The Definite Integral As a Sum The Definite Integral As Area The Definite Integral: The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus Copyright (c) 2004 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

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**Copyright (c) 2004 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.**

Antiderivative An antiderivative of a function f is a function F such that Ex. An antiderivative of is since Copyright (c) 2004 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

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**Copyright (c) 2004 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.**

Indefinite Integral The expression: read “the indefinite integral of f with respect to x,” means to find the set of all antiderivatives of f. x is called the variable of integration Integrand Integral sign Copyright (c) 2004 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

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Constant of Integration Every antiderivative F of f must be of the form F(x) = G(x) + C, where C is a constant. Notice Represents every possible antiderivative of 6x. Copyright (c) 2004 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

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Power Rule for the Indefinite Integral, Part I Ex. Copyright (c) 2004 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

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Power Rule for the Indefinite Integral, Part II Indefinite Integral of ex and bx Copyright (c) 2004 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

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**Sum and Difference Rules**

Ex. Constant Multiple Rule Ex. Copyright (c) 2004 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

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**Integral Example/Different Variable**

Ex. Find the indefinite integral: Copyright (c) 2004 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

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Position, Velocity, and Acceleration Derivative Form If s = s(t) is the position function of an object at time t, then Velocity = v = Acceleration = a = Integral Form Copyright (c) 2004 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

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**Integration by Substitution**

Method of integration related to chain rule differentiation. If u is a function of x, then we can use the formula Copyright (c) 2004 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

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**Integration by Substitution**

Ex. Consider the integral: Sub to get Integrate Back Substitute Copyright (c) 2004 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

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Ex. Evaluate Pick u, compute du Sub in Integrate Sub in Copyright (c) 2004 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

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Ex. Evaluate Copyright (c) 2004 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

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Ex. Evaluate Copyright (c) 2004 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

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Shortcuts: Integrals of Expressions Involving ax + b Rule Copyright (c) 2004 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

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**Copyright (c) 2004 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.**

Riemann Sum If f is a continuous function, then the left Riemann sum with n equal subdivisions for f over the interval [a, b] is defined to be Copyright (c) 2004 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

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**Copyright (c) 2004 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.**

The Definite Integral If f is a continuous function, the definite integral of f from a to b is defined to be The function f is called the integrand, the numbers a and b are called the limits of integration, and the variable x is called the variable of integration. Copyright (c) 2004 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

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Approximating the Definite Integral Ex. Calculate the Riemann sum for the integral using n = 10. Copyright (c) 2004 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

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The Definite Integral is read “the integral, from a to b of f(x)dx.” Also note that the variable x is a “dummy variable.” Copyright (c) 2004 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

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**The Definite Integral As a Total**

If r(x) is the rate of change of a quantity Q (in units of Q per unit of x), then the total or accumulated change of the quantity as x changes from a to b is given by Copyright (c) 2004 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

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**Copyright (c) 2004 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.**

The Definite Integral As a Total Ex. If at time t minutes you are traveling at a rate of v(t) feet per minute, then the total distance traveled in feet from minute 2 to minute 10 is given by Copyright (c) 2004 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

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**Copyright (c) 2004 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.**

Area Under a Graph Width: (n rect.) a b Idea: To find the exact area under the graph of a function. Method: Use an infinite number of rectangles of equal width and compute their area with a limit. Copyright (c) 2004 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

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Approximating Area Approximate the area under the graph of using n = 4. Copyright (c) 2004 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

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Area Under a Graph a b f continuous, nonnegative on [a, b]. The area is Copyright (c) 2004 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

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**Geometric Interpretation (All Functions)**

a b R2 Area of R1 – Area of R2 + Area of R3 Copyright (c) 2004 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

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Area Using Geometry Ex. Use geometry to compute the integral Area =4 Area = 2 Copyright (c) 2004 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

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**Fundamental Theorem of Calculus**

Let f be a continuous function on [a, b]. 2. If F is any continuous antiderivative of f and is defined on [a, b], then Copyright (c) 2004 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

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The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus Ex. Copyright (c) 2004 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

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**Evaluating the Definite Integral**

Ex. Calculate Copyright (c) 2004 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

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**Substitution for Definite Integrals**

Ex. Calculate Notice limits change Copyright (c) 2004 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

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**Copyright (c) 2004 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.**

Computing Area Ex. Find the area enclosed by the x-axis, the vertical lines x = 0, x = 2 and the graph of Gives the area since 2x3 is nonnegative on [0, 2]. Antiderivative Fund. Thm. of Calculus Copyright (c) 2004 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

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