Disorder #1: Hypertension = high blood pressure (consistently greater than 140/90) - Prolonged condition damage to heart & BV’s. - Can lead to more serious disorders (ex. Stroke) - Treated through diet, exerciser, weight control, & medication
Disorder #2: Coronary Artery Disease Arteriosclerosis = the loss of elasticity and hardening of the arteries, may be caused by hypertension, age, & plaque build-up. Atherosclerosis = hardening of arteries due to buildup of plaque (fatty deposits) on or inside the walls of these arteries. - Can occur anywhere in the body, but it’s called “coronary artery disease” when it happens in the coronary arteries Angina = pain in the chest, left shoulder, arm, or neck caused by insufficient blood supply to cardiac muscles - Often triggered by physical activity, which increases the demand for oxygen. - Sometimes mistaken for “heartburn”. - Treated with drug called nitroglycerin, which is a vasodilater (opens the coronary arteries to increase blood flow to the cardiac muscle).
Disorder #2: Coronary Artery Disease Myocardial Infarction (aka “Heart Attack”) = death of an area of cardiac muscle tissue due to oxygen deprivation (more severe form of angina). - Blood clot completely blocks a coronary artery resulting in cardiac muscle death. - Damaged heart cannot pump blood as efficiently causing fatigue, dizziness, & chest tightness/pain. - Risk factors include age, smoking, poor diet, obesity, lack of exercise, stress, family history (genetics), & diabetes MOST RISK FACTORS CAN BE CONTROLLED!
Disorder #3: Stroke - Caused by a blockage of a BV going to the brain. - Symptoms vary depending on the part of the brain affected (i.e. Weakness, speech slurring, numbness on one side of body). - Can be prevented with a healthy lifestyle. - Can be treated with angioplasty.
Technology #1: Angioplasty - Opens a blocked artery - A small balloon is inserted through a catheter & inflated causing the narrowed artery to expand. - Stents sometimes used to ensure blocked artery remains open.
Technology #2: Angiogram -Cardiac Catheterization = the insertion of a long, thin tube called a “catheter” into the heart through an artery, usually the femoral (thigh) or brachial (upper arm). -Contrast dye, which is can be seen in x-rays, is then injected through the bloodstream. -A two-dimensional x-ray called an angiogram is taken, which shows the circulation of blood through the coronary arteries. - Allows doctors to see which arteries are diseased.
Technology #3: Coronary Bypass Surgery 1)A BV, usually a vein, is extracted from the patient’s leg. 2)The vein is grafted (attached) to the blocked or narrowed coronary arteries 3)This re-routes the blood flow & the heart is able to receive O 2 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nZNQ0uliqHI
Technology #4: Body Scans Computerized Tomography (CT) Scan - X-ray imaging produces cross-sectional images of a three- dimensional object. - Most commonly used diagnostic tool b/c they are widely accessible. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Scan - Produces cross-sectional images from gamma rays emitted by a radioactive tracer injected into body tissues. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Scan - Uses radio waves & a magnetic field to produce still & video images inside the body. - Considered safer than CT & PET scans because they do not expose the patient to any radiation. - Unfortunately, very expensive to buy & operate.