# Forms of Energy Sound Energy

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Forms of Energy Sound Energy
Grade 4 Forms of Energy Sound Energy Big Idea 10 SC.4.P.10.1 & SC.4.P.10.2 & SC.4.P.10.3 Pacing Guide – Quarter 2 Topic 7 & 8 10/28-11/22 Keisha Kidd, Curriculum Support Specialist Mary Tweedy, Curriculum Support Specialist Millard Lightburn, District Supervisor Department of Mathematics and Science Office of Academics and Transformation

Benchmark Descriptions
SC.4.P.10.1 – Observe and describe some basic forms of energy, including light, heat, sound, electrical, and the energy of motion. SC.4.P.10.2 – Investigate and describe that energy has the ability to cause motion or create change. SC.4.P.10.3 – Investigate and explain that sound is produced by vibrating objects and that pitch depends on how fast or slow the object vibrates.

What is Energy? Energy is the ability to do work.
Energy is the ability to cause a change. Energy can change an object’s: motion shape temperature color Engage and explore: Quick Activity: See SF TE p Have students feel and describe the temperature of their desk. Then have them rub one spot with an eraser for 15 sec. and then immediately fee the temperature of the rubbed spot. Ask. Is it the same? How has it changed? Why? After a few moments, have students feel for the temperature of the rubbed spot again. Where did the energy go that warmed the spot? Explain: Ask what is energy? Write down participants ideas on the board. Then have students take out their science notebook and open it to an empty page and title it Energy Notes. Then open up their textbook to Chapter 14p. 447 lesson 1: What is energy? Have students read the first paragraph to define energy. Show this slide and have student take notes to define energy and also see ScienceSaurus p. 284 for special meaning of energy and work. Next students define energy as the ability to do work and list ways it can change an object’s properties. Compare and contrast their understanding of energy now. Energy is what it takes to make a change. Evaluate: Extend: Play energy video # 72 from or use SF PD Physical Science DVD C2 Energy Part 1: Kinds and Forms of Energy 3

Forms of Energy Electrical Light Chemical Sound Heat/Thermal Solar
Wind Water Nuclear Plant & Animal bodies Mechanical: kinetic potential Explore: Students can find more forms of energy in the ScienceSaurus on pp. 285, Also you can revisit energy pictures on previous slides for more examples - wind Point out to students that two forms of mechanical energy on listed on the table. Have students read the paragraphs at the bottom of p Then ask volunteers to explain each with an example. ****Note: The teacher can facilitate the rest of lesson 1 and lesson 2 or assign pages 448 – 455 to groups of students using the following jigsaw strategy: Table 1 Reads and presents p. 448 paragraphs 1 – 2. Give the group several balls with different masses and some boxes to demonstrate the effects of mass and speed. Table 2 Reads and presents par. 3 on p and p.449 on kinetic energy changing into different forms. Give this group a ramp, marbles, and some different ramp coverings with smooth and rough textures to demonstrate how friction can be changed. Table 3 Reads and presents p Give this group metal balls and marbles of different sizes, pieces of clay, and the slider cup activity. Table 4 Reads and presents p Give this group slinkies, spring toys, and magnets. for their demo. Table 5 Reads and presents p Chemical Energy and the two tables on p Give students D batteries, wire, and light bulbs. Table 6 Reads and presents Chapter 14, lesson 2 p. 454 – 455 – sound energy. Give students different sizes of rubber bands, plastic cups, and tuning forks. ****Or teacher facilitates following SF TE guide.

Forms of Energy Energy Forms Heat/thermal Electrical Chemical Nuclear
Mechanical: potential kinetic Light /Radiant What Happens? Objects warm. Food cooks. Lights on. / Machines run. Organisms move and grow. Flashlights light up. Generates electricity. Sled sits on top of a hill. Sled slides down the hill. Plants grow. / Lasers cut. Evaluate: Ask students to give examples about what happens from each of the forms of energy in the first column. Then show the 2nd column and compare their responses to the given ones in the 2nd column.

Basic Forms of Energy Match up
Energy Forms 1. Sound 2. Electrical 3. Heat/thermal 4. kinetic 5. Light What Happens? A. Objects warm. Food cooks. B. Lights on. / Machines run. C. Matter vibrates. D. Plants grow. / Humans see E. Sled slides down the hill. Evaluation: quiz - Students match energy forms to the correct What Happens? Follow-up: Chapter 14 Review and Test Prep, pp. 470 – 471. Assign Energy Study Guide for a Energy Strand benchmark edusoft test.

Energy cannot be made or destroyed
Energy can move from one object to another. < < Energy can change from one form to another. Explore: Have two flashlights ready for a demonstration. Read and discuss the first two sentences in the second paragraph on p Have students write Energy can move from one object to another. Hold up a flashlight and have a volunteer turn it on. Ask why is the light bulb in the flashlight giving off light? What energy moved from what object to another inside the flashlight ? Direct students to go to ScienceSaurus p. 300 to see the flashlight illustration. When the flashlight is turned on the battery’s stored chemical energy is changed to electrical energy and travels through the wires in the electric circuit to the light bulb and transfers to light energy. Students draw a diagram of the flashlight and label the energy movement within it. Next have students answer ? #2 on p. 447. Explain: Students finish the paragraph and explain how energy changes from one form to another in fire crackers. Students add Energy can change from one form to another to their notes. Evaluate: Last have students read the last paragraph and answer ? #1 - What are some different forms of energy? Students list in their notes and you add the forms on the next slide. Extension: Explore Learning GIZMO: Energy Conversions

What is electrical energy?
A form of energy that is produced when electrons move from one place to another. Electrons are particles that are in the space around the nucleus of an atom. The forces of attraction and repulsion make electrons move. Engage: Quick Activity TE p. 478 Static Electricity Explore: Directed Inquiry p. 476 Explain: SF Gr. 5Read/Discuss pp. 479 – 481. ScienceSaurus pp Go to To view Discovery Video Physical Science #’s: 119; 39; 121. Evaluation: Workbook p. 150A; Using Science pictures: What is current? Workbook p. 215 Engage: Quick Activity TE p. 482 Explain: Read/Discuss pp Explore: Guided Inquiry pp ; Evaluate: workbook p. 151A; Using Science pictures: Types of circuits Workbook p. 216

What is light? Light is something that allows us to see objects.

Where Does Light Come From?
Sources of Light Sun Ceiling Lights Light bulbs/lamps Flashlight Candle flame Produced By Nuclear reactions Electricity Chemical reactions & Chemical energy Let’s take a closer look at Light Energy. You can play Light A Visible Form of Energy video. Gr. 3 Scott Foresman p Engage Ask. What are the light sources in this room? ( examples: The light from our Sun is traveling in through the windows. Light is traveling from our ceiling lights. What other source of light have you used? The flashlight Can you name other sources of light? How are these light sources produced? The light from the sun is produced by huge nuclear reactions. What produces other sources of light energy? Explain: SF p (top paragraph) Pearson SuccessNet Discovery Video # 85 Sources of Light Extension - Produced By Sun Nuclear reactions Ceiling Lights Electricity Light bulb / lamp Electricity Flashlight Chemical reactions into Electricity into Light Flame (fire) Chemical reactions Lightning Giant Static Electricity Glowworms Chemical reactions

How does light travel? Light travels in a straight path.
Light doesn’t travel through all objects. These are classified as opaque. Engage: What kind of path did the light from the flashlight take in the previous activity? Then demonstrate the following with a volunteer: From a distance of about five meters, point the flashlight in its off position at the board. Have a new volunteer draw a big X on the board where he / she predicts the flashlight beam will hit. Then turn on the flashlight. Observe the beam. What happened? Gr. 3 Physical Science AIMS activity: Flashlight Findings pp Explain: (Add to LGO) Light travels in a straight path. Gr. 3 SF p. 371 Then repeat except this time have a volunteer place a thick piece of cardboard (or some other kind of opaque object ) in front of the beam. What happened this time? The light rays are blocked, and the cardboard casts a shadow. (Add to LGO) Light doesn’t travel through all objects. The cardboard absorbed the light rays. Absorbed light is converted into some other form, such as thermal energy. Can someone explain why most car owners prefer a light color car interior versus a black interior? What kind of energy is light converted to in this example? (heat) Add to LGO. Light can be absorbed and changed to heat.

What can happen when light hits an opaque object?
Light can be absorbed and changed to heat. Light can bounce off or be reflected.

Properties of Light Objects that let all light pass through them:
transparent Objects that let some light pass through them are: translucent Sound, Heat, and Light Explore: Grade 3 AIMS Physical Science Activity: Just Passing Through Activity Give each small group of students a bag of objects that are both transparent and translucent and a flashlight. Ask them to sort the bag. Then explain how and why they sorted. Evaluation: Connected Learning

Light Changes Direction
Light bends or refracts as it passes from one medium (form of matter: solid, liquid or gas) to another. Refraction of Light Virtual Tutorial Explain: Have participants add the refraction light property to their LGO. What different mediums did the light pass through? Air, plastic, water What property do all of these objects have in common? They’re transparent. Explain: If time allows use the hyperlink to take the participants on a virtual refraction tutorial that elaborates and allows for clarifications. Extend: What ways have people found to use bent light? Magnifying glass, eye glasses, telescopes, microscopes

What Color is Light? Write down responses in your notebook.
Problem: What happens when we shine a flashlight on a CD? Hypothesis: Test and Observe: Conclusion: As the light passes through the small ridges on shiny surface of the CD the white light breaks or separates into the colors of the rainbow. Explore: Pass out materials ( CD, blank sheet of white paper, and a flashlight) per group. Participants have the lab sheet on the bottom of the Bending Light Lab. Ask what is the color of light shines from a flashlight? (white) Have a participant read the Problem. Have participants make predictions. Discuss their ideas. Follow the following steps to test and observe: Look at the back of a CD (shiny side without printing). Tilt the CD back and forth and observe. What is happening? ( colors shifting and changing.) Shine a flashlight so that the light reflecting off the CD shines onto a piece of white paper. What do you see on the white paper? Record the colors. What happened to the white light? Why does white light change to ROY G BIV Spectrum? Conclusion: As the light passes through the small ridges on shiny surface of the CD the white light breaks or separates into the colors of the rainbow. Explain: Go to the web site: for a virtual lab on how a prism works. Use ScienceSaurus pp. 310 – 311 as a resource for the electromagnetic spectrum and visible light.

Light, Prisms and the Rainbow Connection Activity
More on Bending Light White light includes all the colors of the rainbow - ROY G BIV. How a Prism Works Light, Prisms and the Rainbow Connection Activity Explore and explain: Click on the hyperlink How a Prism Works. Have a volunteer try out the virtual lab. Then from there click on Light, Prisms and the Rainbow Connection Activity site to learn more about light, prisms, and the color spectrum. What is white light? An easy way to remember the colors of the rainbow is ROY G. BIV. The letters stand for the colors in their correct order: red orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, violet. Red is the longest wave and violet is the shortest. .

What is Thermal Energy? Thermal energy is the total of all the kinetic
and potential energy of the atoms in an object. When any form of matter gets warmer, the kinetic energy of its atoms increases. The object’s particles move faster, so its thermal energy increases. A change in thermal energy can lead to a change in phase or state of matter. Temperature is a measure of thermal energy. Engage: SF TE p Quick Activity as a teacher demonstration. Materials: balloon, empty plastic water bottle, bowl of ice, thermos of hot water Put the balloon on top of the bottle opening Place it in the container of warm water. Observe. The balloon will inflate. Why? 3. Then place the same bottle and balloon into the container of ice water. Observe. What happened? Repeat steps 2 and then 3 again. What happened? Why? Explain: Students read p. 462 to find out what is thermal energy is and what it has to do with the balloon inflating and deflating. Students take notes as you read/discuss pages 462 – 463 together. Students can also read ScienceSaurus pp. 288 – 291 for added information including sources of heat.

How Does Heat Move? Thermal energy flows from warmer substances to cooler substances. Heat can be transferred from one object to another. Engage: SF TE p. 464 Have students imagine they have a cup of hot chocolate like the picture in the slide. Ask. How is heat transferred? Use other TE notes for discussion. Students take notes on the key heat facts. Match up the slide pictures to the heat transfer way they represent. If needed, discuss examples on the pages in ScienceSaurus on pp Explore: See handout: What is heat? for a demonstration of heat moving to from a warmer water to colder water. (see handout.) Materials: warm and cold water, red and blue food coloring, 4 baby food jars, thin plastic mirror. Add blue food coloring to the cold water. Fill two baby food jars with cold water. Add red food coloring to the warm water. Fill two more baby food jars. Place jars where all can see. Put thin mirror over the warm water jar and carefully place this jar over the red warm water jar. Then pull out the mirror. Observe. The warm water stays on the top. Each jar maintains its color. Then place a thin mirror over the blue cold water and pick it up and place it on top of the warm red water in the jar. Observe. The warm water rises into the cold water. The water turns purple. Is this conduction or convection? (convection) Explain: Read and discuss SF pp to find out how heat moves. Evaluate: Work book p. 143A Workbook p. 214 Using Science pictures Extend: Students can create a three part matchbook foldable to name, define and illustrate with examples of the three ways heat moves.

SOUND SC.4.P.10.3 – Investigate and explain that sound is produced by vibrating objects and that pitch depends on how fast or slow the object vibrates.

Sound is a form of energy produced by a vibration or a back and forth movement of an object. Sound is a wave of vibrations that spread from its source of its matter. The more vibrations the waves have, the more energy, the louder the sound. The faster the vibrations or the frequency, the higher the sound. How high or low a sound is called the pitch. Engage: Display focus question: What is sound? Brainstorm and discuss with students a list of all the different sounds they have heard. Workbook p. 141A pre-assessment. Briefly play some music from an electronic device that has a speaker. Turn it off and place a paper plate on a speaker. Then pour some rice or salt on the plate. Play the music again. Let students see how the sound causes the rice or salt to vibrate and form a ripple wave pattern. Explore: Teacher can facilitate Quick Activity from SF TE p. 454 with a pencil, string, and a straw Or See handout: Exploring Sound and give students different sizes of rubber bands, and plastic cups to explore sound. Students reflect on their explorations in their journals/notebooks. Explain: Teacher and students read/discuss What is Sound? Pp top of p. using illustration of guitar and wavelengths with captions, too. Also use Scott Foresman online resources: Gr. 5 Take it to the Net: Physical Science Game: Sound Energy; Watts Notes: Sound. Set up a class and get access to Discovery Video # 26. Extend pitch concept with the lab: Can you Make Different Sounds with a Ruler? (see handout.) With either strategy have students take notes of the key concepts.

Sound Travels Sound travels in waves.
Sound must travel through matter to be heard. Remember: Matter can be a solid, a liquid, or a gas. A sound is made when things vibrate. Sound travels by sending vibrations through matter.

Let’s Explore! Sound Energy Stations

Exploring Sound What did you hear?
Station #1 -How does sound travel through solids? Station #2 -How does sound travel through liquids? Station #3 -How does sound travel through gases? Station #4- How can you make different sounds with a ruler? Station #5 -How is sound made? Station #6 –Good Vibrations! Reflection: What do you know about sound now? Explore magnetic concepts through the stations. Explain: Students share what they did and learned from each station. Then they reflect: What do you know about magnetism now? See next slide.

Sound Travels Through Matter
Solids Some sounds that we hear travel through solids. Sound waves travel very fast through solids. For example: When you hit a drum, it vibrates, then the sound travels through the air, to your ears. Gases Most of the sounds we hear travel through gases, such as air. Sound waves travel slowly through the air. For example: Sound from a bell, a horn, or an alarm clock travels through the air. Liquids Some sounds that we hear travel through water. Sound waves travel a faster through water than through the air. Sonar is the way to use sounds to locate objects under water. What animals use sonar?

In which state of matter, gas, liquid, or solid does sound travel the best?
Sound travels the fastest and is heard the best through solids. Sound travels the slowest and is the quietest when traveling through gases. Sound travels at different speeds in different states of matter/materials. Can sound travel in a vacuum? Explain. Explore: See handout and set up the lab materials for In which state of matter, does sound travel best through? ( can be heard the loundest) Students share hypotheses before the experiment. Discuss 3 types of variables: independent, dependent, and constant. After experiemnt, have students share data collected and their conclusions. Explain and Extend: Also use Scott Foresman online resources: Set up a class and get access to Discovery Video # 111 that reviews sound concepts: vibrations, waves, loudness, pitch and in what state does sound travel the best. Evaluation: Students’ Lab Sheets; Workbook p. 141A

Sound makes the air vibrate.
For sound to be heard, sound vibrations must have air or some other kind of matter to travel through. You cannot hear sound in outer space because there is no air or other matter to carry sound vibrations. How do you think astronauts are able to talk each other in outer space?

Sound can also be blocked.
THINK: Why do some people wear ear coverings?

Cover your ears! Some people who work near loud machines wear ear coverings. The coverings block some of the sound vibrations from reaching the ears. The ear coverings protect your ears from the noise. Have you ever covered your ears? Why?

How do we make sounds? We use our vocal cords to make sounds in our throat. When we speak, our vocal cords vibrate. Place your hand on your throat when you talk, and you can feel the vocal cords vibrate.

Loudness or Volume Volume is the loudness or the softness of a sound.
Loud sounds use a lot of energy. Soft sounds use a little energy. Example: The harder a drum is hit, the more the drum will vibrate . The more an object vibrates, the louder the sound it makes.

Pitch Pitch is the highest or lowest sound an object makes.
Objects that vibrate slowly, make a low pitch. Example-drum. Objects that vibrate quickly, make a higher pitch. Example-recorder

Music Music is a combination or sequences of sounds that people enjoy listening to. Musical instruments make different sounds by plucking the strings. The shorter the string, the quicker it vibrates producing a high sound. The longer the string, the slower it vibrates producing a low sound.

(Click on or copy and paste links to access websites)
Resources (Click on or copy and paste links to access websites) ENERGY INTERACTIVE ONLINE RESOURCES: ENERGY AND THE ENVIRONMENT: SCIENCE FOR KIDS: SOUND AND HEARING ENERGY VIDEOS AND MORE: THE ENERGY STORY: MECHANICAL ENERGY (ANIMATION) CD3422F7D&FROMMYDE=0&ISPRINTERFRIENDLY=0&PROVIDER=&ISLESSONFROMHEALTH=0&PRODU CTCODE=DETB&ISASSIGNED=FALSE&INCLUDEHEADER=YES&HOMEWORKGUID= ENERGY KIDS AND ENERGY DISCOVERY EDUCATION RESOURCES: FUNDAMENTAL: ENERGY MAKES IT HAPPEN EXPLORATION: FORMS OF ENERGY E-BOOK: FORMS OF ENERGY VIDEO: SOURCES OF ENERGY VIDEO: WHAT IS LIGHT?