# Latitude and Longitude

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Latitude and Longitude
How do we find places on maps?

Compass A compass is a tool that helps the user know what direction one is headed. On a map, a compass or a compass rose helps the user locate these directions.

Compass Rose The needle on a compass is magnetized to point to the earth's north magnetic pole. Thus with a compass, a person can roughly tell which direction they are headed. There are four major or cardinal directions on a compass- north, south, east & west. Intermediate directions: northeast, northwest, southeast, southwest. Direction Quiz

Directions The cardinal directions are north, south, east, and west.
The intermediate directions are northeast, southeast, southwest and northwest. They help describe the location of places in relation to other places.

Map Key Maps can be drawn to represent a variety of information.
This information might include things such as roads, tourist attractions and campgrounds. The objects on a map are represented using symbols. Understanding these symbols requires the use of a key or legend to explain the meaning of each of the symbols used in the map.

Map Legends The legend is the key to unlocking the secrets of a map. Objects or colors in the legend represent something on the map. Religions Legend

Can you understand this legend?

Age Expectancy Legend

Map Scale To represent geographic features on a map, the features must be reduced in size. This reduction is expressed as the map’s scale. Maps are always made “to scale”, meaning that each and every paper map has a map scale. In each case, the scale represents the ratio of a distance on the map to the actual distance on the ground. For example, if 2 cm on a map

Map Scale For example, if 2 cm on a map
represents 1 km on the ground... the scale would be 2 cm = 1 km

Latitude and Longitude
The earth is divided into lots of lines called latitude and longitude – Explanation Clip Rap Song

Lines Longitude lines run north and south.
Latitude lines run east and west. The lines measure distances in degrees. Latitude Longitude

Latitude Lines of Latitude run horizontally
Lines of Latitude locate places North or South of the Equator. Latitude is measured in degrees. The Equator is 0 degrees Latitude. The North Pole is 90 degrees N Latitude, and the South Pole is 90 degrees S Latitude.

Where is 0 degree? Equator The equator is 0 degree latitude.
It is an imaginary belt that runs halfway point between the North Pole and the South Pole. Equator

Latitude North Pole South Pole
90 80 [ Lines of North latitude are numbered from 0° to 90° are N.L. 70 60 50 40 30 20 ] Lines of South latitude are numbered from 0° -90° are S.L. 10 10 20 30 TEKS: Social Studies – 6.22 (A), Using social studies terminology correctly 7.22 (A), 8.31 (A) 40 50 60 70 80 90

Latitude The North Pole is at 90° N The South Pole is at 90° S
40° N is the 40° line of latitude north of the equator. 40° S is the 40° line of latitude south of the equator. The equator is at 0° latitude. It is neither north nor south. It is at the center between north and south. TEKS: Social Studies – 6.22 (A), Using social studies terminology correctly 7.22 (A), 8.31 (A)

Major lines of latitude
North Pole Arctic Circle Tropic of Cancer Equator Tropic of Capricorn Antarctic Circle South Pole

Longitude Lines of Longitude run vertically.
They are also called Meridians locate places East or West of the Prime Meridian. There are 180 degrees of east Longitude, and 180 degrees of west Longitude. The Prime Meridian is found in Greenwich, England and is 0 degrees Longitude.

Longitude Lines of longitude begin at the Prime Meridian.
60° E is the 60° line of longitude east of the Prime Meridian. 60° W is the 60° line of longitude west of the Prime Meridian. The Prime Meridian is located at 0°. It is neither east or west W E TEKS: Social Studies – 6.22 (A), Using social studies terminology correctly 7.22 (A), 8.31 (A)

Longitude 180° N North Pole W E West Longitude East Longitude PRIME MERIDIAN S Lines of longitude are numbered east from the Prime Meridian to the 180° line and west from the Prime Meridian to the 180° line. TEKS: Social Studies – 6.22 (A), Using social studies terminology correctly 7.22 (A), 8.31 (A)

Where is 0 degree? The prime meridian is 0 degrees longitude. This imaginary line runs through the United Kingdom, France, Spain, western Africa, and Antarctica. P R I M E D A N

Hemispheres By using the equator and prime meridian, we can divide the world into four hemispheres, north, south, east, and west.

Application N W E S North America is in the Northern Hemisphere because it is north of the Equator. North America is in the Western Hemisphere because it is west of the Prime Meridian. TEKS: Social Studies – 6.3 (B), Posing and answering questions about geographic distributions and patterns 6.22 (A), Using social studies terminology correctly 7.22 (A), 8.31 (A)

Application TEKS: Social Studies –
6.3 (B), Posing and answering questions about geographic distributions and patterns 6.22 (A), Using social studies terminology correctly 7.22 (A), 8.31 (A)

“How To” Booklet Step #1: Label the equator, Prime Meridian, and Cardinal Directions. *Make blank coordinates ( 1st Lat, 2nd Long) Step #2: Find the latitude. Check if it is North or South of the Equator. Fill in the first coordinate. *Don’t forget DEGREES! Step #3: Find the longitude. Check if it is East or West of the Prime Meridian. Fill in the 2nd coordinate. Step #4: Check to see if your fingers touch. Check the Quadrant matches the directions in coordinates.

A location’s coordinates (____° N or S, ____ ° E or W)

GLOBE SAYS This game follows the same rules as “Simon Says”
Body parts represent the major lines of latitude Top of head – North Pole Ears – Arctic Circle Shoulders – Tropic of Cancer Waist – Equator Knees – Tropic of Capricorn Shins – Antarctic Circle Toes – South Pole