“A livelihood comprises the capabilities, assets (including both material and social resources) and activities required for a means of living. Chambers, R. and G. Conway (1992)
What is “sustainable livelihoods” ? A livelihood is sustainable when it can cope with and recover from stresses and shocks and maintain or enhance its capabilities and assets both now and in the future, while not undermining the natural resource base. Chambers, R. and G. Conway (1992)
Livelihoods are sustainable when they: are resilient in the face of external shocks and stresses; are not dependent upon external support or if they are, this support itself should be economically and institutionally sustainable; maintain the long-term productivity of natural resources; and do not undermine the livelihoods of, or compromise the livelihood options open to, others.
Population trends Resource trends (including conflict) National/international economic trends Trends in governance (including politics) Technological trends Trends Human health shocks Natural shocks Economic shocks Conflict Crop/livestock health shocks Shocks Of prices Of production Of health Of employment opportunities Seasonality
Why focus on policies, institutions and processes ?
Policies, institutions and processes determine poor people’s access to various assets (eg. land, labour); the benefits poor people are able to derive from different types of capital (through markets); the environment for private sector investment; the extent to which poor people are able to engage in decision-making processes; and individual and civil society rights.
Core principals of Sustainable Livelihoods Approach People Centered Holistic Dynamic - It seeks to understand and learn from change Building on strengths - analysis of strengths, rather than needs Macro micro links - importance of macro level policy and institutions to the livelihood options of communities and individuals Sustainable
SL approaches can be used in the identification of development priorities and new activities They can also be usefully applied to reviews of current activities that were not designed with SL principles in mind,
A review should aim to shed light on ways in which project activities directly and indirectly affect people’s livelihoods and the contexts; whether people’s own livelihood priorities are being addressed; how people’s livelihood strategies are affecting their participation in and benefit from the project; and how activities can be adapted to enhance livelihood impacts for target groups while remaining consistent with the overall project purpose.
Key questions to explore and analyse What change is occurring at the micro level? How do livelihood strategies influence the degree of local participation? How does the policy and institutional context influence livelihood impact?
Other livelihood development approaches/ Analysis frameworks
Value Chain Approach Value Chain Analysis examines the full range of activities required to bring a product or service from its conception to its end use, the firms that perform those activities in a vertical chain and the final consumers for the product or service. The activities include design, production, marketing and support to get the final product or service to the end consumer.
Participatory Market System Development Approach
Official/commercial local practices Corruption Infrastructure Competitors Agricultural goods supplier Brand development Access to credit Market Information Services Quality assurance Buyers standards Accreditation FT, Organics etc Transport Product development ENABLING ENVIRONMENT CHANNELS OF MARKET DEMAND MARKET SERVICES RICE VALUE CHAIN Farmer Extension Services Rice traderRice millExporterWholesalerRetailer Consumer Legal policy and practice Tax framework Non Tariff Barriers Gender Consumer Trends Market plays and monopolies Tariffs Insurance Services
Palmyrah sap tapping Trees in abundance No habit of savings, income only during the season, no income for women License for taping, annual tenders for tavern competition with big players Highly seasonal, impacts of conflict, Socially not accepted. Government plans to reduce alcohol Tappers association, linkages with exercise department, ability to compete for tavern license Alternative products other than alcohol, market diversification Traditional knowledge Close to the Trinco city, good road access Is it ethical to promote same livelihoods, if not what alternatives
Vulnerability context Shocks Trends Seasonality Transforming structures and process - Seasonal income - No saving habit - lack of access to credit facility for small farmers - Poor money management - Unaffordable new technologies - No irrigation channels - rain dependent agro practice - Small land size - Ownership (tenant farming) - Non usable / degrading paddy lands - Weak / non functional farmer societies - Poor acceptance among society for small farmers - Isolated farmers (weak linkages to ext. markets) Livelihood strategies Livelihood outcomes Livelihood Capital Assets Human Social Physical Financia l Natural - Marginalization due to land size - Soil condition / climate change - Land ownership (tenant farming ) and long term planning - Unfavourable markets - Part time jobs (no standard jobs) - Traditional farming knowledge - Family labour - Youths getting away from farming - Low external input paddy cultivation practices promoted - Traditional value for knowledge - Government procedures in favour of org farming - Certification - Service improvement - Large scale companies involved in marketing Weak - extension services Government’s interest on Org farming and inability on subsidies - Low External Input Paddy cultivation - New market for high value rice - Bi annual rainfall pattern (favourable) - Soil conditions and climate change - Usage of marginal paddy lands for other development activities