Presentation on theme: "Table of Contents Observing Chemical Change"— Presentation transcript:
1 Table of Contents Observing Chemical Change Describing Chemical ReactionsControlling Chemical ReactionsFire and Fire Safety
2 Properties and Changes in Matter - Observing Chemical ChangeProperties and Changes in MatterMatter can undergo both physical change and chemical change.
3 Properties and Changes in Matter - Observing Chemical ChangeProperties and Changes in MatterChemical changes occur when bonds break and new bonds form.
4 Energy in Chemical Changes - Observing Chemical ChangeEnergy in Chemical ChangesA student places two substances in a flask and measures the temperature once per minute while the substances react. The student plots the time and temperature data and creates the graph at left.
5 Energy in Chemical Changes - Observing Chemical ChangeEnergy in Chemical ChangesReading Graphs:What was the temperature in the flask at 4 minutes? When was the first time the temperature was at 6ºC?At 4 minutes the temperature in the flask was about 23ºC. The first time the temperature was 6ºC was at about 7 minutes.
6 Energy in Chemical Changes - Observing Chemical ChangeEnergy in Chemical ChangesCalculating:How many degrees did the temperature drop between 2 minutes and 5 minutes?20ºC
7 Energy in Chemical Changes - Observing Chemical ChangeEnergy in Chemical ChangesInterpreting Data:Is the reaction endothermic or exothermic? Explain.The reaction was endothermic; it absorbed thermal energy from the reaction mixture, causing the temperature to drop.
8 Energy in Chemical Changes - Observing Chemical ChangeEnergy in Chemical ChangesInferring:At what temperature did the reaction stop? How can you tell?The reaction stopped at about 2ºC. You can tell because that is the lowest temperature reached.
9 Energy in Chemical Changes - Observing Chemical ChangeEnergy in Chemical ChangesDrawing Conclusions:Suppose the temperature in the flask increased instead of decreased as the reaction occurred. In terms of energy, what kind of reaction would it be? Explain.If the temperature increased, the reaction would be exothermic; an exothermic reaction is one in which energy is released.
10 Properties and Changes of Matter - Observing Chemical ChangeAsking QuestionsBefore you read, preview the red headings. In a graphic organizer like the one below, ask a what or how question for each heading. As you read, write answers to your questions.Properties and Changes of MatterQuestionAnswerWhat are physical properties of matter?Physical properties are characteristics that can be observed without changing one substance into another.What is the evidence for chemical reactions?The evidence for chemical reactions is the formation of new substances and changes in energy.
11 Links on Chemical Changes - Observing Chemical ChangeLinks on Chemical ChangesClick the SciLinks button for links on chemical changes.
13 Describing Chemical Reactions Cellular phone messages make use of symbols and abbreviations to express ideas in shorter form. Similarly, chemists often use chemical equations in place of words.
14 What Are Chemical Equations? - Describing Chemical ReactionsWhat Are Chemical Equations?Chemical equations use chemical formulas and other symbols instead of words to summarize a reaction.
15 Chemical Formulas - Describing Chemical Reactions The formula of a compound identifies the elements in the compound and the ratios in which their atoms are present.
16 Conservation of Mass - Describing Chemical Reactions The principle of conservation of mass states that in a chemical reaction, the total mass of the reactants must equal the total mass of the products.
17 Balancing Chemical Equations - Describing Chemical ReactionsBalancing Chemical EquationsTo describe a reaction accurately, a chemical equation must show the same number of each type of atom on both sides of the equation.
18 Balancing Equations Activity - Describing Chemical ReactionsBalancing Equations ActivityClick the Active Art button to open a browser window and access Active Art about balancing equations.
19 Balancing Chemical Equations - Describing Chemical ReactionsBalancing Chemical EquationsMagnesium metal (Mg) reacts with oxygen gas (O2), forming magnesium oxide (MgO). To write a balanced equation for this reaction, first write the equation using the formulas of the reactants and products, then count the number of atoms of each element.
20 Balancing Chemical Equations - Describing Chemical ReactionsBalancing Chemical EquationsBalancing Chemical Equations:Balance the equation for the reaction of sodium metal (Na) with oxygen gas (O2), forming sodium oxide (Na2O).
21 Balancing Chemical Equations - Describing Chemical ReactionsBalancing Chemical EquationsBalancing Chemical Equations:Balance the equation for the reaction of tin (Sn) with chlorine gas (Cl2), forming tin chloride (SnCl2).
22 Classifying Chemical Reactions - Describing Chemical ReactionsClassifying Chemical ReactionsMany chemical reactions can be classified in one of three categories: synthesis, decomposition, or replacement.
23 Building Vocabulary - Describing Chemical Reactions Using a word in a sentence helps you think about how best to explain the word. After you read the section, reread the paragraphs that contain definitions of Key Terms. Use the information you have learned to write a meaningful sentence using each Key Term.Key Terms:Examples:replacementKey Terms:Key Terms:Examples:closed systemcoefficientsynthesisdecompositionExamples:chemical equationIn a closed system, matter is not allowed to enter or leave.A chemical equation is a short, easy way to show a chemical reaction.Replacement is the process in which one element replaces another in a compound or two elements in different compounds trade places.reactantA substance you have at the beginning of a reaction is a reactant.A coefficient is a number in a chemical equation telling you how many atoms or molecules of a reactant or product take part in the reaction.productA new substance produced in a reaction is a product.conservation of massConservation of mass means that during a chemical reaction, matter is not created or destroyed.Synthesis means combining two or more elements or compounds to make a more complex substance.open systemIn an open system, matter can enter from or escape to the surroundings.Decomposition means breaking down compounds into simpler products.
25 Energy and Reactions - Controlling Chemical Reactions All chemical reactions need a certain amount of activation energy to get things started.
26 Energy and Reactions - Controlling Chemical Reactions Both exothermic and endothermic reactions need energy to get started.
27 Rates of Chemical Reactions - Controlling Chemical ReactionsRates of Chemical ReactionsThe cells in your body (as in all living things) contain biological catalysts called enzymes. At the end of a reaction, an enzyme molecule is unchanged.
28 Relating Cause and Effect - Controlling Chemical ReactionsRelating Cause and EffectAs you read, identify the factors that can cause the rate of a chemical reaction to increase. Write the information in a graphic organizer like the one below.CausesIncrease in surface areaEffectIncrease in temperatureIncreased rate of reactionIncrease in concentration of reactantsUse of a catalyst
29 Data Sharing LabClick the PHSchool.com button for an activity about sharing data for the Skills Lab Temperature and Enzyme Activity.
30 Exothermic and Endothermic Reactions - Controlling Chemical ReactionsExothermic and Endothermic ReactionsClick the Video button to watch a movie about exothermic and endothermic reactions.
32 Understanding Fire - Fire and Fire Safety Three things are necessary to start and maintain a fire–fuel, oxygen, and heat.
33 Understanding Fire - Fire and Fire Safety The fire triangle can be controlled in the grill. If any part of the fire triangle is missing, the fire will not continue.
34 Home Fire Safety - Fire and Fire Safety If you know how to prevent fires in your home and what to do if a fire starts, you are better prepared to take action.
35 Using Prior Knowledge - Fire and Fire Safety Before you read, write what you know about fire safety in a graphic organizer like the one below. As you read, write what you learn.What You KnowA fire needs fuel to burn.A fire need oxygen to burn.All homes should have smoke detectors.What You LearnedFire is a result of a combustion reaction.The most deadly fires start with cigarettes.Baking soda can be used to put out small fires.
36 Click the SciLinks button for links on fire safety. - Fire and Fire SafetyLinks on Fire SafetyClick the SciLinks button for links on fire safety.