2 Setting The time and place of the action of a story Setting includes the following:The geographical locationThe time periodThe specific building, room and so on . . .
3 MoodThe feeling or atmosphere that a writer creates for the reader. A cold wind sliced across the silent and empty graveyard. Stanton shivered and glanced up at the moon, a pale silver behind dark clouds. He heard footsteps, then more footsteps, and his stomach knotted. Shouldn’t have come, he thought. What mood does this paragraph convey to the reader?
4 CharactersProtagonist – The main character in a story; the character who is involved in the central conflict of the storyAntagonist – principal character or force in opposition of the protagonist
5 Characters Static – one who remains the same throughout the story Dynamic – one who undergoes important changes as the plot unfolds
6 The series of events in a story PlotThe series of events in a story
7 Elements of PlotExposition – introduces setting and characters; introduces the conflictRising Action – presents complications that intensify the conflict and builds suspenseClimax – the turning point and the moment of greatest suspense; makes the outcome of the conflict clearFalling Action – eases the suspense; reveals the outcome of the story’s climax; shows how the main character resolves the conflictResolution – reveals the final outcome and ties up loose ends
8 FlashbackAn account of a conversation, an episode, or an event that happened before the beginning of the story
9 Conflict Struggle between opposing forces Internal conflict – a struggle within a character’s mind. The struggle usually centers on a choice or decision the character must make External conflict – a clash between a character and an outside force, such as another character, society, or a force of nature
10 Point of View First person – narrator is character in the story Third person – narrative voice is outside the storyThird person omniscient – all-knowing point of viewThird person limited – narrator tells what only one character thinks
11 ForeshadowingWriter’s use of hints or clues to suggest events that will occur later in a story
12 SimileA comparison between two unlike things using “like” or “as.” Example: The river winds down the valley like a long, skinny snake.
13 MetaphorA comparison between two unlike things without using “like” or “as.” Ex: Time is money.
14 PersonificationGiving human characteristics to inanimate objects or abstract ideas. Ex: The wind cried in the dark.
15 What does the feather symbolize for Dumbo? SymbolismAn object, character, figure, or color that is used to represent something other than itself.What does the feather symbolize for Dumbo?
16 AllusionA reference to the Bible, history, or another famous piece of literature.In The Hunchback of Notre Dame, the gargoyle Laverne tells a flock of pigeons to “Fly my pretties! Fly, Fly!” alluding to the Wicked Witch of the West in The Wizard of Oz.
17 ToneThe writer’s or speaker’s attitude toward a subject, character, or audience; conveyed through the author’s choice of words and detail.Tone can be:SeriousHumorousSarcasticIndifferentEtc.
18 ThemeAn underlying message about life or human nature that a writer wants the reader to understand; the main idea of the story