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Complex Patterns of Inheritance and Meiosis inheritance mistakes.

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Presentation on theme: "Complex Patterns of Inheritance and Meiosis inheritance mistakes."— Presentation transcript:

1 Complex Patterns of Inheritance and Meiosis inheritance mistakes

2 More Complicated Situations… 1.Incomplete dominance

3 Multiple Alleles I A I A = A; I A i = AI B I B =B; I B i = B I A I B = ABii = O A, B – codominant i - recessive

4 Other situations: Pleiotropy – one gene affects several phenotypes Epistasis – one gene affects the phenotypic expression of another gene Polygenetic inheritance – additive effect of two or more genes on a single phenotypic character


6 Human Disorders that follow Mendelian Patterns of Inhertitance Recessively inherited disorders: albinism, cystic fibrosis, Tay-Sachs disease, sickle-cell anemia Dominantly inherited disorders: Achondroplasia, Huntington’s disease

7 Cystic Fibrosis is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder that affects mostly the lungs but also the pancreas, liver, and intestine. Difficulty breathing is the most serious symptom and results from frequent lung infections.autosomalrecessivegenetic disorderlungspancreasliver intestineDifficulty breathinglung infections

8 Tay-Sachs Disease is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder. In its most common variant), it causes a progressive deterioration of nerve cells and of mental and physical abilities that begins around six months of age and usually results in death by the age of four.autosomal recessivegenetic disorder

9 Achondroplasia

10 Huntington Disease Late Acting – middle age Western Europeans Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative genetic disorder that affects muscle coordination and leads to cognitive decline and behavioral [1] symptoms. The disease is caused by an autosomal dominant mutation in either of an individual's two copies of a gene called Huntingtin, which means any child of an affected person typically has a 50% chance of inheriting the disease. neurodegenerativegenetic disorder cognitive [1] autosomaldominantmutationgene Huntingtin

11 Screening for inherited disorders

12 Pedigrees

13 Sex-linked traits Located on Sex chromosomes: X or Y Females XX; Males XY X-linked recessive Hemophilia, color blindness

14 Human Disorders Due to Chromosomal Alterations Alterations of chromosome number and structure – Are associated with a number of serious human disorders

15 Abnormal Chromosome Number When nondisjunction occurs – Pairs of homologous chromosomes do not separate normally during meiosis – Gametes contain two copies or no copies of a particular chromosome Figure 15.12a, b Meiosis I Nondisjunction Meiosis II Nondisjunction Gametes n + 1 n  1 n – 1 n + 1n –1 n n Number of chromosomes Nondisjunction of homologous chromosomes in meiosis I Nondisjunction of sister chromatids in meiosis II (a) (b)

16 Aneuploidy of Sex Chromosomes Nondisjunction of sex chromosomes – Produces a variety of aneuploid conditions

17 Down Syndrome Down syndrome – Is usually the result of an extra chromosome 21, trisomy 21 Figure 15.15

18 Klinefelter syndrome – Is the result of an extra chromosome in a male, producing XXY individuals Turner syndrome – Is the result of monosomy X, producing an X0 karyotype

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