Research Design Plan for selecting subjects, research sites, and data collection procedures to answer research questions Credibility Extent to which results approximate reality, are accurate & trustworthy Reduced error
Qualitative Design Research where results are given in words In depth understanding Data collection Observations Interviews (open ended questions) Documents Identify patterns Study behavior in the natural environment Multiple realities, subjective Example….
Quantitative Design Research where results are given in numbers Specifically designed instruments & statistics Objectivity is critical Use data from a sample to generalize to larger population Look for: cause & effect relationships describe, predict variables Articles??
Experimental Design Researcher manipulates what the subject(s) will experience give treatments and observe/measure to see if they cause changes in behavior Manipulate independent variables & measure dependent variables True experimental design has randomly assigned treatment groups Only difference in groups is due to chance
Experimental Designs Notations: Post test only R T O 1 Pre-test/post test R O 1 T O 2 R O 3 O 4 Experimental group R Control group R Pre-test O 1 Pre-test O 3 Treatment T Post-test O 2 Post-test O 4 R = Random N = Non-random O = Test/measurement T = Treatment Both groups measured at the same time
Experimental Designs Strengths: Random selection into groups…reduces error Best approach for determining cause-and-effect relationships among variables High degree of control of extraneous variables Power of manipulation of variables Weakness/limitation: Experiments typically occur in laboratories Difficult to replicate the “real world”
Quasi-Experimental Designs Nonequivalent, non-random groups Pretest- Posttest Design NA O 1 TO 2 NB O 3 O 4 Uses intact already established groups of subjects IWU/ISU basketball Classes Selection can be a major problem if one group scores higher than the other because of a factor
Activity A researcher wants to test the effectiveness of 3 methods of teaching a dance to a group of 5 th graders. A local PE teacher allows use of 3 of her classes. The researcher administers a pretest to all students, each class receives a different method of teaching for two weeks, and then all students get a posttest. What type of design is it? Experimental or quasi- experimental? Write out a design notation
Non-Experimental Designs Researchers measure subjects in order to describe them as they naturally exist without experimental intervention Don’t control/manipulate the environment
Non-Experimental Designs Types of non-experimental Design Descriptive Comparative Correlational Relationships…when one variable varies systematically to another variable
Non-Experimental Designs Descriptive Summarize the current or past status of something Describe attitudes, behaviors, characteristics Example What are the leadership styles of Athletic Directors/Principals/Nonprofit CEOs Attitudes of students towards campus rec/athletics
Non-Experimental Designs Descriptive – 2 types Longitudinal (over time) Same cohort/group Weaknesses: Subject attrition, time Cross sectional (across groups) Different groups of subjects over time 20-25; 30-35; 40-45; 46+ Weaknesses: Selection differences, time Longitudinal Alumni survey * Survey same alumni every 5 years Cross Sectional Alumni survey * Survey alumni who have been out 5, 10, 15 & 20 years one time.
Non-Experimental Designs Comparative Differences between 2+ groups Value of the DV in 1 group is different than the value of the DV in the other group. Public schools vs. private schools D1 vs. D3 Other examples…
Non-Experimental Designs Is there a difference……. in donations to athletic departments between public & private institutions? in attitudes towards fitness between recreational volleyball players, baseball players, & softball players? in fitness levels between youth who participate in structured and unstructured recess?
Non-Experimental Designs Comparative Difference or similarity conclusions can be made. Causal conclusions can not be made.
Non-Experimental Designs Correlational Correlation & Causation: never infer causation from correlation High relationship does not mean one variable causes another May be unmeasured variables affecting the relationship Examples…
Non-Experimental Designs Correlational Measuring the relationship between variables Correlation can be measured statistically Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r) Correlation coefficient (r) can range from –1 to 0 to 1 Further from 0 = stronger relationship -1/1 is a perfect negative/positive relationship 0 means no relationship
Mixed Methods Designs Utilize both qualitative & quantitative methods to triangulate research results Sequential mixed methods Begins with 1 methodology then uses the other to elaborate or expand findings Delphi Study Concurrent mixed methods Use both methodologies at the same time & merge findings Triangulation: reach the same conclusion using multiple methods