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15 Globalization and Terrorism.

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Presentation on theme: "15 Globalization and Terrorism."— Presentation transcript:

1 15 Globalization and Terrorism

2 Comparative Criminology
the cross-national study of crime Globalization process of social homogenization by which the experiences of everyday life, marked by the diffusion of commodities and ideas, can foster a standardization of cultural expressions around the world continued on next slide

3 Comparative Criminology
Globalization of knowledge The increase in understanding resulting from a sharing of information among cultures

4 Ethnocentrism Ethnocentrism
The phenomenon of “culture-centeredness” by which one uses one’s own culture as a benchmark against which to judge all other patterns of behavior Ethnocentrism can interfere with comparative criminology continued on next slide

5 Ethnocentrism In some societies, even the study of crime is taboo
Crime rates of different countries are hard to compare because Differences in definitions of crimes Diverse crime-reporting practices Political, social, economic, and other influences on the reporting of statistics to international agencies

6 Transnational Crimes Transnational crime has emerged as one of the most pressing challenges of the early 21st century Transnational crime ranges from simple fraudulent and phishing schemes perpetrated globally to illegal trafficking in people, human organs, and illicit drugs

7 Human Smuggling and Trafficking
illegal immigration in which an agent is involved for payment to help a person cross a border clandestinely Trafficking in persons (TIP) the exploitation of unwilling or unwitting people through force, coercion, threat, or deception continued on next slide

8 Human Smuggling and Trafficking
Trafficking often includes an element of smuggling and trafficking victims may believe they are being smuggled, not trafficked

9 Human Trafficking TIP is often an international crime involving crossing borders Victims can be trafficked within their own country and community

10 Federal Immigration and Trafficking Legislation
1882 Chinese Exclusion Act 1924 Immigration Act 1952 Immigration and Nationality Act 2000 Trafficking Victims Protection Act 2003 Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act 2004 Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act

11 Terrorism Terrorism premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant targets by subnational groups or clandestine agents, usually intended to influence an audience continued on next slide

12 Terrorism Terrorist acts are criminal
the main distinction between terrorism and criminal act has to do with the offender’s political motivation or social ideology

13 Table 15-4 Characteristics of Terrorism

14 Types of Terrorists Nationalist terrorists Religious terrorists
State-sponsored terrorists Left-wing terrorists Right-wing terrorists Anarchist terrorists

15 Domestic Terrorism Domestic terrorism
unlawful force or violence by a group or an individual who is based and operates entirely within the U.S. and its territories without foreign direction and whose acts are directed at elements of the U.S. government or population continued on next slide

16 Domestic Terrorism 1995 terrorist bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building (Oklahoma City) Sovereign citizen movement

17 International Terrorism
unlawful force or violence by an individual or group that has a connection to a foreign power or whose activities transcend national boundaries against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, to further political or social objectives continued on next slide

18 International Terrorism
Most terrorist attacks in 2010 were committed by terrorist organizations using conventional methods

19 Cyberterrorism Cyberterrorism
a form of terrorism that makes use of high technology, especially computers and the Internet, for planning and carrying out terrorist attacks Unlike most common forms of terrorism, which target people and things, cyberterrorism targets the virtual world continued on next slide

20 Cyberterrorism President’s Commission on Critical Infrastructure Protection National Infrastructure Protection Center Critical Infrastructure Assurance Office Functions transferred to the National Cyber Security Division of the DHS in 2003 GovNet

21 Terrorism and Technology
The technological sophistication of state-sponsored terrorist organizations is increasing Some terrorist organizations are seeking to obtain WMDs continued on next slide

22 Terrorism and Technology
Bioterrorism the intentional or threatened use of viruses, bacteria, fungi, or toxins from living organisms to produce death or disease in humans, animals, or plants

23 The War on Terrorism The most infamous incident of national terrorism in the United States of America took place on September 11th, 2001. continued on next slide

24 The War on Terrorism Three important legislative initiatives resulted during the first years of the G.W. Bush presidency: The USA PATRIOT Act (2001) The Sarbanes-Oxley Act (2002) Homeland Security Act (2002) The National Strategy for Combating Terrorism sets out key goals

25 The USA PATRIOT Act Designed to fight terrorism but also includes provisions that apply to other types of crime Led to questions whether the government unfairly expands police powers at the expense of individual rights and civil liberties continued on next slide

26 The USA PATRIOT Act The ACLU has pledged to work with the President and law enforcement to ensure civil liberties are not eroded

27 The Department of Homeland Security
Established by the Homeland Security Act of 2002 Charged with protecting the nation’s critical infrastructure against terrorist attack Director is a member of the Cabinet Coordinates activities of 22 domestic agencies

28 Terrorism Commissions and Reports
Gilmore Commission Hart-Rudman Commission and follow-up report Bremmer Commission 9/11 Commission continued on next slide

29 Terrorism Commissions and Reports
Commission on the Prevention of WMD Proliferation and Terrorism Bipartisan Policy Center’s National Security Preparedness Group on evolving nature of terrorism

30 Countering the Terrorist Threat
White House National Strategy for Combating Terrorism Multipronged initiative aimed at reducing both the threat severity and international reach of international terrorist organizations Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 continued on next slide

31 Countering the Terrorist Threat
Obama’s National Strategy for Counterterrorism Focus on deterring Islamic-inspired terrorism

32 Foreign Terrorist Organizations
Foreign terrorist organization (FTO) a foreign organization that engages in terrorist activity that threatens the security of U.S. nationals or the national security of the U.S. and that is so designated by the U.S. Secretary of State continued on next slide

33 Foreign Terrorist Organizations
Any organization considered for FTO designation must: Be foreign and engage in terrorist activity Threaten the security of U.S. nationals or the national security of the U.S.

34 Consequences of FTO Designation
It is unlawful for a person in the U.S. or subject to U.S. jurisdiction to provide funds or material support to an FTO Representatives, members of FTO who are aliens may be denied visas or kept from entering the U.S. continued on next slide

35 Consequences of FTO Designation
U.S. financial institutions must block funds of FTOs and their agents and report the blockage to the U.S. Treasury Department

36 Foreign Terrorist Organizations
State Dept. may designate foreign governments as state sponsors of international terrorism Terrorist Exclusion List Aliens living in the U.S. who provide material assistance to groups on the list can be deported Anyone assisting groups on the list can be refused entry into the U.S. continued on next slide

37 Foreign Terrorist Organizations
Terrorist Identities Datamart Environment central repository of information on international terrorist identities

38 The Future of Terrorism
Trends in modern terrorism Trend toward loosely organized, self-financed, international terrorist networks Trend toward terrorism that is religiously or ideologically motivated Recent growth of cross-national links among different terrorist organizations continued on next slide

39 The Future of Terrorism
The proliferation of WMDs is a key concern in the issue of international terrorism

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