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**STUDY OF NEUBAUER’S CHAMBER**

BY: DR.ANEEQA SHAHID

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HEMOCYTOMETER Hemo: blood Cyto: cell Meter: measurement/counter Thus, it is an instrument used to count the blood cells.

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It includes: Neubauer’s slide Cover slip RBC pipette WBC pipette

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**NEUBAUER’S SLIDE It is the name given to a thick glass slide**

NEUBAUER’S SLIDE It is the name given to a thick glass slide. In the centre of the slide, there is an H- shaped groove. On the two sides of the central horizontal bar, there are scales for counting the blood cells. The depth of the scales is 1/10mm or 0.1mm.

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**Improved Neubauer Hemocytometer**

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**NEUBAUER’S CHAMBER Neubauer’s slide with a cover slip over it, is called a Neubauer’s chamber. **

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**Each scale is 3mm wide and 3mm long.**

The whole scale is divided into 9 big squares. Each square is 1mm long and 1mm wide.

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Hemocytometer Chamber

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The four corner squares are further divided into sixteen smaller squares and are used for WBC counting.

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**Four corner squares are meant for WBC counting.**

Total = 64 small squares W W W W

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The central square is subdivided into twenty five smaller squares and each of these smaller squares is further subdivided into sixteen smallest squares. These are meant for platelet and RBC counting.

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The platelets are counted in all the small squares of the central square, while the RBCs are counted in five small squares, four of corners and one of center. (total of 80 smallest squares)

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R R R R R

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**CALCULATION OF THE VOLUME OF WBC SQUARES**

Length of one small square = 1/4mm Width of one small square = 1/4mm Depth of one small square = 1/10mm Volume of one small square = 1/4 x 1/4 x 1/10 = 1/160mm³

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**CALCULATION OF VOLUME OF RBC SQUARE**

Length of one smaller square = 1/5 mm Width of one smaller square = 1/5 mm Depth of one smaller square = 1/10mm Volume of one smaller square = 1/5 x 1/5 x 1/10 = 1/250mm³

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**Each of the smaller squares is further subdivided into sixteen smallest squares.**

Length of one smallest square = 1/5 x 1/ = 1/20mm Width of one smallest square = 1/20mm Depth of one smallest square = 1/10mm Volume of one smallest square = 1/20 x 1/20 x 1/10 = 1/4000mm³

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**Cell Counts by Hemocytometer**

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**Counting Rule Do not count cells touching Bottom line Right line**

This is to avoid double counting.

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**DIFFERENCES BETWEEN RBC AND WBC PIPETTE RBC pipette WBC pipette**

1) It has a red bead It has a white bead 2) It has graduations upto mark 101 It has graduations upto mark 11 3) Size of bulb is larger Size of bulb is smaller 4) Size of lumen is smaller Size of lumen is larger

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RBC PIPETTE WBC PIPETTE

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**DILUTION FACTORS For RBC counting Blood is filled till mark 0**

DILUTION FACTORS For RBC counting Blood is filled till mark 0.5 and Hayem’s fluid is then filled till mark 101.Both are thoroughly mixed and then few drops are discarded which contain just the diluting fluid in the stem. Thus, 1 portion out of 101 is discarded. So, 0.5 part of blood is in 100 parts of fluid or, 1 part of blood is mixed in 200 parts of fluid Thus, dilution factor for RBC counting is 200.

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For WBC counting 0.5 part of blood is mixed in 10 parts of fluid So, 1 part of blood is in 20 parts of fluid Thus, dilution factor for WBC counting is 20.

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For Platelet counting 1 part of blood is mixed in 100 parts of fluid, so dilution factor for platelet counting is 100.

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**RBC COUNTING Total no. of RBCs in 80 smallest squares = X**

No. of RBCs in one smallest square = X/80 Volume of one smallest square = 1/4000mm³ No. of RBCs in 1/4000mm³ = X/80 No. of RBCs in 1mm³ = X/80 x 4000 No. of RBCs in 200 times diluted blood = X/80 x 4000 No. of RBCs in undiluted blood = X/80 x 4000 x 200/mm³ = X x 10,000/mm³

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**WBC COUNTING Total no. of WBCs in 64 smallest squares = X**

No. of WBCs in one smallest square = X/64 Volume of one smallest square = 1/160mm³ No. of WBCs in 1/160mm³ = X/64 No. of WBCs in 1mm³ = X/64 x 160 No. of WBCs in 20 times diluted blood = X/64 x 160 No. of WBCs in undiluted blood = X/64 x 160 x 20/mm³ = X x 50/mm³

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**PLATELET COUNTING Total no. of platelets in central square = X**

Volume of central square = 1/10mm³ No. of platelets in 1/10mm³ = X No. of platelets in 1mm³ = X x 10 No. of platelets in 100 times diluted blood = X x 10 No. of platelets in undiluted blood = X x 10 x 100/mm³ = X x 1,000/mm³

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**FOCUSING 4X to see the general formation of slide.**

10X for WBC counting 40X for RBC counting

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4x magnification 1 mm

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10x magnification 0.2 mm

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40x magnification

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THANKS

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