Presentation on theme: "The Industrial Revolution. Scientific Revolution Review Scientific Method – Francis Bacon; Used observation & experiments to test hypothesis Nicolas Copernicus."— Presentation transcript:
Scientific Revolution Review Scientific Method – Francis Bacon; Used observation & experiments to test hypothesis Nicolas Copernicus – Heliocentric Theory Galileo – Telescope, Astronomical Observations Isaac Newton – Gravity, 3 Laws of Motion Robert Boyle – Boyle’s Law (Pressure inversely proportional to temperature & volume. PV=k)
ESSENTIAL QUESTION How did the Industrial Revolution affect the development of Europe?
The Industrial Revolution Refers to the shift from farming to manufacturing that originated in Great Britain & spread to the United States and much of Europe.
Where it Started & Why The Industrial Revolution began in England Why? – England had large deposits of coal – Their large colonial empire supplied raw materials – Had most powerful navy in the world, & used it to protect trade ships – Powerful middle class
Causes The steam engine was invented Powered many machines at once Allowed factories to be created Now goods could be mass produced
Effects Urbanization – Many workers were needed to work in factories – People moved from countryside to cities because of available jobs – Populations of cities increased
Global Trade Increased – Nations needed raw materials to produce goods – Nations wanted to sell their products to make money Railroads – Created to transport goods – 1 st Railroad: United Kingdom, used to move goods & people in 1830’s – Spread throughout revolution & became fastest way to travel Effects
Working Conditions – Poor conditions with low pay – Children forced to work in unsafe conditions cause they could fit inside machines to fix them – Charles Dickens wrote about this in many novels Effects
Scientists & Inventions James Hargreaves – Invented Spinning Jenny in 1763 – Used cotton to make large amounts of thread & cloth James Watt – Invented Steam Engine in 1769 – Used to power factories & machinery
Eli Whitney – Created Cotton Gin in 1793 – Quickly separated cotton from seeds – American South planted more cotton, increased slavery Robert Fulton – Invented Steamboat in 1807 – Created faster movement of goods & people Scientists & Inventions
Samuel Morse – Helped create telegraph in 1837 – Developed Morse Code – Made communication faster using electronics & wires Henry Bessemer – Invented Bessemer Process in 1854 – Helped with mass production of steel using iron Scientists & Inventions
Louis Pasteur – Helped create Pasteurization in 1864 – Heated milk to kill germs without spoiling milk – Created rabies vaccine Alexander Graham Bell – Invented telephone in 1876 – First words: “Mr. Watson come here!” Scientists & Inventions
Thomas Edison – Developed devices that influenced life around world – Phonograph, Motion Picture Camera, Light bulb Pierre & Marie Curie – Discovered radium in 1898 – Radioactive material used in X-Rays – Led to creation of atomic bomb Scientists & Inventions