Presentation on theme: "Indian Dynasities Preview Main Idea / Reading Focus The Mauryan Empire"— Presentation transcript:
1 Indian Dynasities Preview Main Idea / Reading Focus The Mauryan Empire Regional KingdomsMap: Mauryan and Gupta EmpiresThe Gupta Empire
2 Early Indian Empires Main Idea Reading Focus The Mauryas and Guptas created powerful empires that united much of India, while trading kingdoms thrived in southern India.Reading FocusHow did the Mauryan Empire unify much of India, and who were its key rulers?What regional kingdoms ruled India after the collapse of the Mauryan Empire?Which key rulers and events shaped the Gupta Empire?
3 The Mauryan EmpireMany small kingdoms existed across India in 300s BCEach kingdom had own ruler; no central authority united themMagadha a dominant kingdom near GangesStrong leader, Chandragupta Maurya gained controlBegan conquering surrounding kingdomsConquests led to founding of Mauryan empire
4 Rise of the Mauryan Empire Alexander the GreatAlexander conquered force in northwest India, 326 BCDid not remain in India longBattle-weary soldiers wanted to return home, soon left IndiaAlexander’s legacyAlexander’s conquest inspired Chandragupta MauryaSeized throne of kingdom of Magadha, 321 BCBegan Mauryan empireMauryan armyChandragupta built immense army, 60,000 soldiersChariots, war elephantsBegan conquering northern IndiaExtended empireDefeated Seleucus I, 305 BCMauryan empire controlled northern India, 303 BCAlso controlled much of what is now Afghanistan
5 Mauryan Rule Strong government Arthasastra Empire divided Like Qin, Han rulers, Chandragupta Maurya established centralized government to control empire, crush resistanceRelied on brilliant adviser Kautilya, Brahmin, member of the priest casteArthasastraManual for statecraft, thought to be written by KautilyaArthasastra called for strict state controlAlso called for use of spies, even assassinationEmpire dividedChandragupta divided empire into districts, appointed loyalists to rule themOrganized bureaucracy ran government, spies monitored officials, gathered information, rooted out threats to state
6 The Mauryan EmpireGreek ambassador visited Mauryan Empire during Chandragupta’s reignWrote about his observationsDescribed land of prosperityMegasthenesGreatest city, Mauryan capital: magnificent palaces, temples, parksGovernment controlled economyEmperor owned land, rent money from farmers funded governmentPataliputra
7 Rule under Ashoka Kalinga campaign Chandragupta gave up throne, 301 BC, became Jainist monkSon became emperor, followed by grandson AshokaMauryan empire reached height under AshokaThrough warfare empire expanded, included most of IndiaKalinga campaignViolence of fighting at Kalinga appalled AshokaAbandoned policy of conquest and converted to BuddhismBegan to promote, spread policy of right conduct, BuddhismSupported Buddhist missionaries, worked to improve lives of his people
8 The Mauryan EmpireMauryan empire began to decline following death of Ashoka, 232 BCSons battled for power, central control weakenedDistant provinces began to slip awayLast Mauryan emperor killed by one of generals, 184 BCMauryan empire lasted 140 years, then collapsed
9 How did the reigns of Chandragupta and Ashoka differ? ContrastHow did the reigns of Chandragupta and Ashoka differ?Answer(s): Chandragupta—strict state control, spies, conquest; Ashoka—nonviolence, public works, Buddhist teachings
10 Regional KingdomsAs the Mauryan Empire collapsed, India again divided into many regional kingdoms. These kingdoms differed in the north and south.Invaders from Central Asia established new dynastiesMany had been displaced by expansion of ChinaNorth IndiaGreek invaders from what is now Afghanistan formed Greco-Indian dynastiesIntroduced Greek art forms to India, influenced local stylesThe GreeksConquered much of north during first century ADRestored some of grandeur of Mauryan Empire to regionKushan dynasty fell, AD 250The Kushans
11 South India Powerful kingdoms Other kingdoms Sea Trade Developed in India south of Deccan PlateauAndhra kingdom expanded across south, central India, 100s BCControlled region until about AD 300Other kingdomsIn far south, small kingdoms had ruled for some timeChera, Chola, Pandya, collectively called Tamil kingdomsCarried on active sea trade with Southeast Asia, other regionsSea TradeBrought kingdoms wealth, developed sophisticated cultureMadurai, capital of Pandya kingdom, became center of Tamil poetryPoetry was filled with descriptions of vibrant society of southern India
12 Identify Cause and Effect Why did peoples from Central Asia invade northern India during the period after the collapse of the Mauryan Empire?Answer(s): They had been displaced from China by invasions of Qin and Han.
13 The Gupta EmpireIndia remained divided into small kingdoms for about 400 years. Then around AD 320, the Gupta dynasty took over northern India. Under the Gupta, northern India was reunited, Indian society prospered, and the religion of Hinduism grew in popularity.Like Mauryan, Gupta dynasty rose to power in region of MagadhaFounder was Chandra Gupta IFrom base in Magadha, Chandra conquered neighboring lands, brought much of northern India under Gupta controlRise of Gupta EmpireGupta rule less centralizedDivided main part of empire into unitsRoyal officials governed each unitGoverned through local rulers in distant conquered areasLocal rulers had to pay tributeIndia under Gupta RuleGupta power expanded under the heirs of Chandra Gupta I, and the empire reached its height under Chandra Gupta II.
15 The Gupta Empire Chandra Gupta II, ruled from AD 375 to 415 Further expanded empire, strengthened economyReign was period of prosperity, cultural achievementChinese Buddhist monk, Faxian, traveled to IndiaDescribed empire as rich, prosperous, and punishments fair
16 The Gupta Empire Support of Hinduism End of Gupta Rule Weakened Empire Buddhism prospered, spread during period between Mauryan, Gupta empiresHinduism lost popularity during this periodUnder Guptas, Hinduism became main religionRulers supported building Hindu temples, promoted revival of writingsBuddhism began to lose influence during this periodBegan to weaken, late 400sLoose Gupta control allowed some parts of empire to break awayCentral Asian nomads, White Huns, began invading IndiaEnd of Gupta RuleProblems disrupted tradeGupta military efforts to defend empire drained treasuryGupta rule ended, 550Again India divided into small, regional kingdomsWeakened Empire
17 Identify Supporting Details How did the Guptas rule their empire?Answer(s): ruled central part directly with royal officials; ruled outlying areas indirectly through local rulers