Atoms & Molecules.

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Atoms & Molecules

What is an Atom? Atom: Smallest unit of all matter 3 Main Parts:
1) Proton (+) 2) Neutron (0) 3) Electron (-) Protons & Electrons usually equal in number Elements (substance made of only 1 type of atom) are identified on the Periodic Table

Atomic Number: Number of protons the atom contains Usually # of electrons also Atomic Mass: Combined # of protons and neutrons inside the nucleus Electrons too small to affect mass

Atomic Number: Number of protons the atom contains Usually # of electrons also Atomic Mass: Combined # of protons and neutrons inside the nucleus Electrons too small to affect mass How many protons, electrons, and neutrons does Carbon contain? Protons = ______ Electrons = ______ Neutrons = ______ 6

Atomic Number: Number of protons the atom contains Usually # of electrons also Atomic Mass: Combined # of protons and neutrons inside the nucleus Electrons too small to affect mass How many protons, electrons, and neutrons does Carbon contain? Protons = ______ Electrons = ______ Neutrons = ______ 6 6

Protons + Neutrons = 12 6 + Neutrons = 12 Atomic Number: Number of protons the atom contains Usually # of electrons also Atomic Mass: Combined # of protons and neutrons inside the nucleus Electrons too small to affect mass How many protons, electrons, and neutrons does Carbon contain? Protons = ______ Electrons = ______ Neutrons = ______ 6 6 6

What’s the: Atomic number of Beryllium? B) Atomic mass of Beryllium? 4
C) How many protons? D) How many electrons? E) How many neutrons? Atomic number = amount of protons Atomic number = amount of protons Atomic number = protons usually same as electrons Atomic mass = amount of protons + neutrons Atomic mass = amount of protons + neutrons 4 9 4 4 5

Electron Cloud Electrons orbit the nucleus in “energy levels”
1st level: closest to nucleus stable w/ 2 electrons

Electron Cloud Electrons orbit the nucleus in “energy levels”
1st level: closest to nucleus stable w/ 2 electrons 2nd level: stable w/ 8 electrons 7 1 6 8 5 1 4 2 2 3

Electron Cloud Electrons orbit the nucleus in “energy levels”
1st level: closest to nucleus stable w/ 2 electrons 2nd level: stable w/ 8 electrons Examine Carbon. It has 2 electrons in the first level and 4 electrons in the 2nd level. Is Carbon stable?

Electron Cloud Electrons orbit the nucleus in “energy levels”
1st level: closest to nucleus stable w/ 2 electrons 2nd level: stable w/ 8 electrons 3rd level: Atoms are stable when the outermost level is “full” 7 7 6 8 1 8 6 1 5 1 5 2 2 4 4 2 3 3

Molecules Molecule: 2 or more atoms held together by a covalent bond
Form when atoms are unstable Covalent Bond: Chemical bond where atoms share electrons Ex: Oxygen (O2) Why unstable? Only 6 electrons in outer energy level Molecules 8 protons 8 electrons 6 1 1 5 2 4 2 3

Molecules Molecule: 2 or more atoms held together by a covalent bond
Form when atoms are unstable Covalent Bond: Chemical bond where atoms share electrons Ex: Oxygen (O2) Why unstable? Only 6 electrons in outer energy level What happens? Oxygen atom will share two electrons with neighboring oxygen atom End result? Both end with 8 electrons in outer level (stable) Molecules

Ionic Bonds Defined: chemical bond where electrons are gained/lost
sodium chlorine Defined: chemical bond where electrons are gained/lost Creates Ions (atoms with + or – charge) Held together by magnetic attraction Cause: 1 atom steals an electron(s) from another atom Ex: Sodium + Chlorine = Sodium Chloride

Ionic Bonds 11+ 17+ 11- 10- 18- 17- +1 -1 Na Cl e e e e e e Unstable
sodium e e e e e e chlorine e e e e e e e e e Before bonding After bonding Na Cl Protons (+) Electrons (-) Net charge 11+ 17+ 11- 10- 18- 17- +1 -1

Ionic Bonds 11+ 17+ 11+ 17+ 10- 18- 11- 17- +1 -1 Na Cl Na Cl e e e e
Stable Unstable Unstable Stable e e e e e e e sodium e e e e e e chlorine e e e e e e e e e After bonding Before bonding Na Cl Protons (+) Electrons (-) Net charge Na Cl Protons (+) Electrons (-) Net charge 11+ 17+ 11+ 17+ 10- 18- 11- 17- +1 -1

Review Name the 3 subatomic particles.
Which subatomic particles are found inside the nucleus? The atomic number usually allows us to determine the amount of which two subatomic particles? If an atom has the atomic mass of 14 and the atomic number of 6, how many protons, neutrons, and electrons does the atom contain? After an ionic bond is formed, what is the charge of the atom that gained an electron? Which type of chemical bond shares electrons?