Presentation on theme: "Organizing the Elements"— Presentation transcript:
1 Organizing the Elements 1. Dmitri Mendeleev organized the elements by increasing atomic mass.2. Mendeleev left spaces in his periodic table and he was able to predict new elements based on chemical properties.Is the periodic table still organized by increasing atomic mass?
3 Organizing the Elements 1. Periodic table - elements are arranged by increasing atomic number and by changes in physical and chemical properties.2. Henry G.J. Moseley led to the arrangement of elements based on their increasing atomic numbers.
4 Parts of the Periodic Table 1. Groups (or families) - vertical columns in the periodic table numbered 1-18.Elements in each group have similar properties.2. Periods - horizontal rows of elements on the periodic table.The elements increase by one proton and one electron as you go from left to right in a period.
8 Energy Levels: # of Electrons Energy level 1 2 electronsEnergy level 2 8 electronsEnergy level 3 18 electronsEnergy level 4 32 electronsWhen an energy level is full of electrons, the next energy level begins to fill up with electrons until it has reached its limit.
9 Valence Electrons1. Elements in the same group have the same number of valence electrons (electrons in the outer energy level).2. Valence electrons determine chemical properties.3. Maximum number of valence electrons is in the noble gases (group 18)… they have 8 and are very stable.
10 Draw the electron cloud structure (showing energy levels) for: Boron2. Oxygen3. Lithium4. Chlorine5. Nitrogen6. Neon7. Magnesium8. Silicon
19 Rows on the Periodic Table An element’s period number (row number) indicates the number of occupied energy levels.Example: All elements in period 3 have three occupied energy levels.123
20 Period or Row 1 on the Periodic Table: How many energy levels?
21 Period or Row 2 on the Periodic Table: How many energy levels?
22 Last Vertical Row on the Periodic Table: Stable The last element in each period ends with a full outer energy level and is therefore VERY stable!
23 Valence Electrons Group 1 1 valence electron Group 2 2 valence electronsGroup 13 3 valence electronsGroup 14 4 valence electronsGroup 15 5 valence electronsGroup 16 6 valence electronsGroup 17 7 valence electronsGroup 18 8 valence electrons (except He)Skip groups 3-12 (transition elements) because they can vary.
24 Electron (Lewis) Dot Diagrams Outer electrons are so important in determining the chemical properties of an element… this is a special way to represent them.It uses:1. the chemical symbol2. dots to represent the valence electrons (electrons in outer energy level)
26 Same Group = Similar Properties Example 1: Group 1:Alkali metalsshiny, malleable (can be hammered into thin sheets) and ductile (can be pulled into wires)Example 2: All group 17 elements have seven electrons in their outer energy levels
27 Same Group = Similar Properties Example 3: Group 18 elements already have a full stable outer energy level of 8 valence electrons; that is why they do not react readily with other elements.
28 Review QuestionsHow are the elements arranged in the periodic table?
29 Review Questions How are the elements arranged in the periodic table? Increasing atomic number and by changes in physical and chemical properties.
30 Review QuestionsWhat do the elements in a vertical column of the periodic table have in common?
31 Review QuestionsWhat do the elements in a vertical column of the periodic table have in common?elements in the same group have similar properties because they have the same number of valence electrons
32 Review QuestionsWhat do the dots in this electron dot diagram represent?
33 Review QuestionsWhat do the dots in this electron dot diagram represent?valence electrons
34 Review QuestionsWhat is the maximum number of electrons that can fill the first and second energy levels?
35 Review QuestionsWhat is the maximum number of electrons that can fill the first and second energy levels?first energy level 2second energy level 8
36 Review QuestionsThe horizontal rows of elements are called (groups, periods).
37 Review QuestionsThe horizontal rows of elements are called periods.