Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Circular Flow of Income

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Circular Flow of Income"— Presentation transcript:

1 Circular Flow of Income

2 Lesson Objectives To understand what the circular flow of income is
To learn what it contains To understand why we measure nations’ (flow of) income To appreciate that wealth and income are not the same

3 The circular flow of income
Households Rent, wages, interest and profit Land, labour and capital Expenditure on goods and services Goods and services Firms This is a simple model – a CLOSED economy – where there is no foreign trade

4 The circular flow of income
Households Rent, wages, interest and profit Land, labour and capital Expenditure on goods and services Goods and services Firms Based on this model, there are three ways of measuring the level of economic activity

5 Measuring the level of Economic Activity
National Output (O) – the value of the flow of goods and services from firms to households National Expenditure (E)– the value of spending by households on goods and services National Income (Y) – the value of income paid by firms to households in return for land, labour and capital O E Y

6 Injections and Withdrawals
The circular flow of income highlights the main injections and withdrawals in an economy. Injections will add money to the circular flow of income; they raise spending. Withdrawals will remove money from the circular flow; they reduce spending.

7 Injections and Withdrawals
Households Withdrawals Saving Taxes Imports Injections Investment Government Spending Exports Income Expenditure Firms

8 What does this all mean? If injections are greater than withdrawals, expenditure on goods and services will exceed the planned level of production. Firms will, therefore, expand output and national income will rise. However, if withdrawals are greater than injections, production will exceed the current level of expenditure. Firms will, therefore, reduce their output and national income will fall.

9 Measuring National Income
Different measures are used to calculate national income The best known measure is GDP This increases the actual value of national income because it includes indirect taxes such as VAT There are other measures of national income, but GDP remains the best guide to economic performance both over time and between countries

10 Activities Questions 1 (a) and (b) on page 162

11 Question 1: p.162 Households Firms £bn Rent, 5 Expenditure
Wages interest and profit Total Expenditure on goods £100 bn and services £125 bn £100 bn £125 bn Firms

12 Question 3 (b): p.163 Economists test hypotheses and build economic models. E.g., an economist might suggest that high investment leads to high per capita income. This could be tested by correlating statistics for 2 different economies. Both economists and governments can make policy recommendations based upon economic evidence. E.g. if transferring resources from richer to poorer nations, who should gain and who should lose? Economists and governments are also interested in making judgments about economic welfare. GNP per capita figures are an important measure of living standards. Figure 4 shows comparisons between countries which are relatively easy to understand.

13 Homework Read the section ‘Accuracy of national income statistics’ (pages 163-4) Answer question 4 on page 164 Read and make notes on the rest of pages 164 and 165 Answer question 5 on page 164

Download ppt "Circular Flow of Income"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google