2 Lesson Objectives To understand what the circular flow of income is To learn what it containsTo understand why we measure nations’ (flow of) incomeTo appreciate that wealth and income are not the same
3 The circular flow of income HouseholdsRent,wages,interestand profitLand, labour and capitalExpenditureon goodsand servicesGoods and servicesFirmsThis is a simple model – a CLOSED economy – where there is no foreign trade
4 The circular flow of income HouseholdsRent,wages,interestand profitLand, labour and capitalExpenditureon goodsand servicesGoods and servicesFirmsBased on this model, there are three ways of measuring the level of economic activity
5 Measuring the level of Economic Activity National Output (O) – the value of the flow of goods and services from firms to householdsNational Expenditure (E)– the value of spending by households on goods and servicesNational Income (Y) – the value of income paid by firms to households in return for land, labour and capitalO E Y
6 Injections and Withdrawals The circular flow of income highlights the main injections and withdrawals in an economy.Injections will add money to the circular flow of income; they raise spending.Withdrawals will remove money from the circular flow; they reduce spending.
7 Injections and Withdrawals HouseholdsWithdrawalsSavingTaxesImportsInjectionsInvestmentGovernment SpendingExportsIncomeExpenditureFirms
8 What does this all mean?If injections are greater than withdrawals, expenditure on goods and services will exceed the planned level of production. Firms will, therefore, expand output and national income will rise.However, if withdrawals are greater than injections, production will exceed the current level of expenditure. Firms will, therefore, reduce their output and national income will fall.
9 Measuring National Income Different measures are used to calculate national incomeThe best known measure is GDPThis increases the actual value of national income because it includes indirect taxes such as VATThere are other measures of national income, but GDP remains the best guide to economic performance both over time and between countries
12 Question 3 (b): p.163Economists test hypotheses and build economic models. E.g., an economist might suggest that high investment leads to high per capita income. This could be tested by correlating statistics for 2 different economies.Both economists and governments can make policy recommendations based upon economic evidence. E.g. if transferring resources from richer to poorer nations, who should gain and who should lose?Economists and governments are also interested in making judgments about economic welfare. GNP per capita figures are an important measure of living standards.Figure 4 shows comparisons between countries which are relatively easy to understand.
13 HomeworkRead the section ‘Accuracy of national income statistics’ (pages 163-4)Answer question 4 on page 164Read and make notes on the rest of pages 164 and 165Answer question 5 on page 164