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Internal Structure of City

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Presentation on theme: "Internal Structure of City"— Presentation transcript:

1 Internal Structure of City
Urban Land Use Pattern

2 Types of Land Use There are different types of land use such as
Commercial land use Residential land use Industrial land use Institutional land use Transportation land use Recreational land use




6 Functional Segregation
Similar activities tend to aggregate together because of Similar locational requirements and External economies of scale different types activities are separated from each other because Different locational requirements Different rent-paying ability Conflicts amongst them

7 Bid Rent Mechanism Land rent decreases with increasing distance from city centre competition for land and accessibility push up the land value/rent different land use has different rent curve because they have different demand for accessibility and space

8 Commercial land use needs large number of people to support their business Greater market threshold highest demand for accessibility require less space Can afford higher rent

9 Residential land use Accessibility is not important
require more space (especially high class residential area) cannot afford high rent

10 Industrial land use Accessibility is not very important
require large area of space cannot afford high unit rent There is great difference between light and heavy industry

11 Bid Rent Curve commercial industrial residential Rent ($/m2)
City centre Distance (km)

12 Bid Rent Curve commercial industrial residential Rent ($/m2)
City centre Distance (km) residential

13 Demand for Space High order retailing business locates nearer to _______________ comparing with wholesaling business because it can afford higher rent and occupies ____________ space. High class residential area locates ____________________ city centre so as to get more space. Heavy industries locate in suburban because ____________________ is needed.

14 Concentric Model C.B.D. Transition Zone Low class residential
Commuter’s zone Transition Zone Middle class residential Low class residential


16 Industrial area can be found along the __________and __________because
river railway

17 Low class residential areas are located next to ___________and ___________________ because
C.B.D. industrial area

18 sea shore the Governor’s house High class residential area can also be found next to _________ and _______________________ because It is also be located away from __________________ because industrial area

19 Mutual Relationship between Different Types of Land Use
Some land uses are mutually exclusive Some land uses are mutually support This will lead to segregation and aggregation of land uses

20 Impact of transport network
Industrial area Middle class residential area Low class residential area High class residential area

21 Multiple Nuclei Model

22 Harris & Ullman Multiple nuclei Model Burgess Concentric Model Hoyt Sectoral Model


24 Other Factors Government planning Physical factors e.g. Relief
New town planning Land use zoning Urban renewal Physical factors e.g. Relief Historical factors Behavioural factors


26 Central Business District(C. B. D
Central Business District(C.B.D.) is located at __________ of the city. Since the C.B.D. is near to the docks and harbour, it is believed that the early function of the city was ____. The rise of regional centres because heart port

27 At some junction of arterial / major transport routes
Relatively high accessibility Especially accessible to the local population Reach the market threshold of some middle order goods / services

28 Hierarchy of Business Centre
C.B.D. Regional business centres Community business centres

29 Rent Distance Rent Distance regional function community function

30 If the level of accessibility of the street junction deteriorates as a result of urban blight, how would the bid-rent curves and land use pattern be affected? Rent Distance

31 Main road Higher accessibility Side street

32 Example Regional centre Community Centre Mong Kok, Causeway Bay
Neighbourhood Centre Mong Kok, Causeway Bay Shun Lee Shopping centre Shun On Shopping centre

33 specialized functional commercial areas
External economies of scale / Agglomeration benefits Reputation Similar requirements Ancillary services e.g. Golden Shopping Centre

34 highway-oriented shopping ribbons

35 Harris & Ullman Multiple nuclei Model Burgess Concentric Model Hoyt Sectoral Model

36 Vertical Zonation Zone B Zone C Zone A City centre
Floor City centre Distance from city centre Dentist Jewelry Airline Solicitor Accountant Doctor Trading Shipping Audit firm Fitness Boutique Fast food Residential Supermarket Chinese Herb Labour union Travel agent Zone A Zone B Zone C

37 Zone A is Zone B is Zone C is Central Business District Mixed land use zone Residential area

38 Central Business District

39 Characteristics of CBD
heart of city focus of major transport routes highest accessibility limited space keen competition of land use highest rent tall buildings modern buildings high order retailing business airline companies traffic congestion vertical zonation Central District Tsim Sha Tsui

40 Mixed land use Urban decay slum / poor living environment
lack of open space traffic congestion Pollution hawkers poor sanitation high crime rate

41 Mixed land use Lower buildings
vertical zonation - commercial land use occupies the lower floors residential land use occupies the upper floors higher order shops are located at main streets; lower order shops are located at side-streets factories and workshops are found in back street

42 Urban Population Density
City Centre Distance

43 Change of Population Density over time
City Centre Population Density Distance Urban expansion

44 Comparison

45 Western Vs Non-western Cities
Suburbanization counter-urbanization Rural-urban migration influx of population Good transport network Poor tarnsportation development Good economic development Poor economic development Well-developed C.B.D. Limited high order business

46 Urban sprawl, suburbanization, counter-urbanization
Urban push Rural pull

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