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What is a taxonomy? A system to classify what students should be able to demonstrate after learning  Cognitive: learning and application of knowledge.

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Presentation on theme: "What is a taxonomy? A system to classify what students should be able to demonstrate after learning  Cognitive: learning and application of knowledge."— Presentation transcript:

1 What is a taxonomy? A system to classify what students should be able to demonstrate after learning  Cognitive: learning and application of knowledge  Psychomotor: the development of physical and neuromuscular skills  Affective: acquisition of attitudes, values, and appreciation

2 Bloom’s Cognitive Taxonomy Each factor builds on the previous learning  Knowledge  Comprehension  Application  Analysis  Synthesis  Evaluation

3 Bloom’s affective domain The more students like something, the more they will seek to become involved and stay involved Once an attitude is developed, chances are slim that the attitude will be reversed Levels:  Receiving  Responding  Valuing  Organization  Characterization

4 Psychomotor Taxonomy Psychomotor learning has distinct stages that are observable as the learner progresses  Remember your characteristics of precontrol, control, utilization, proficiency?  Remember Fitts and Posner and Gentile from Motor Learning Students may be at one level in the psychomotor taxonomy on one skill and another level on a different skill

5 Bressan’s Taxonomy Skill construction  Perceiving  Patterning Skill stabilization  Accommodating  Refining Skill differentiation  Varying  Improvising & composing

6 Adapting for the fitness domain Corbin’s classifications  Vocabulary of fitness  Exercising  Achieving fitness  Establishing regular exercise times  Knowing how to evaluate fitness  Knowing how to problem solve and prescribe for changes in fitness

7 Why use the taxonomies? Use of the taxonomies encourages a progression of learning outcomes from lower end through higher-order objectives  Without the taxonomy, teachers often: Try to teach advanced skills before the pre-requisite skills are learned Over emphasize lower-order objectives Sacrifice higher-order objectives in the process of emphasizing the lower-order objectives  Higher order objectives will be necessary for students to apply knowledge to real-life situations

8 Factors that influence psychomotor development Provision of a model of demonstration with verbal cues for students to perceive the key points of the movement skill Practice opportunities  Learner involvement: ALT-PE A high number of trials in quality learning will enable students to become proficient Type of skill: teaching emphasis will differ depending on the type of skill to be learned: closed vs. open Task appropriateness: challenging, but not too hard or too easy  Move from simple to more complex

9 Development of game-playing skills Phase I: development of game skills through drills  Include as many situations as possible that are authentic to game-playing  Practice speed before accuracy, then put together Phase II: transition from skill drills to game play  Create games that force students to move to the object in a dynamic setting  Modified games help to bridge the gap; fewer players give more opportunities to practice and move toward automation and skill differentiation Phase III: game play

10 Practice design opportunities If you are working with a learner who is in the skill construction stage, would you use whole or part practice? Why? If you are working with a learner who is in the skill differentiation state, would you use whole or part practice? Why? What factors would influence your decision to use part or whole practice?

11 Practice organization You are teaching a one week unit on archery at Desert Ridge MS  How would you organize your practice opportunities using massed and distributed practice?  What factors influence your decision to use one more than the other?

12 Transfer of learning What can you encourage students to do between lessons to increase the transfer of learning? Factors that influence transfer  Similarities between tasks; the greater the similarities, the greater the transfer  Amount of practice on the first task  Motivation to transfer  Method of training: more successful when the whole task practiced  Intent of transfer: teacher providing a link of the similarities

13 Factors that influence retention Nature of the task Meaningfulness of the task Amount of overlearning Using these three factors, describe how you would promote retention of learning across 10 lessons on the physical activity roller blading.

14 Impact of feedback on learning You are teaching a lesson on mountain biking. Today is bike maintenance day. Summarize the various kinds of feedback that you would give to students and the possible effects of the feedback on their learning.

15 Cognitive Development The trick is to incorporate cognitive development within psychomotor activities  Verbal information will address the knowledge and comprehension levels Memorization Meaning verbal learning: attach new ideas to previous learning Use different teaching styles that allow students to construct their own learning

16 Cognitive Development Construction of new learning:  Higher level thinking activities  Portfolio tasks  Fitness concept research  Integration of concepts to real world physical activity

17 Teaching strategies for cognitive development Use of critical cues Address the ‘why’ as well as the ‘how’ Bulletin board displays to reinforce concepts taught Videotapes to analyze movement, game strategies, officiate game play Data collection with HR monitors, pedometers Tactical game play

18 Learning Activity Choose a unit topic. Describe a cognitive project that you might include as part of a unit that encourages cognitive development. The project should empower students to construct new learning from previous learning and utilize higher levels of thinking on the cognitive taxonomy.

19 Positive Attitudes When teachers are aware of students’ feelings about physical education, they can provide appropriate learning activities Enjoyment is a pre-req to continued activity, teachers should help develop favorable attitudes  Positive conditions and consequences are necessary  As few negative conditions and consequences as possible are necessary  A supportive classroom environment where students are treated as individuals is important

20 Conditions and consequences Positive  Content oriented conditions A favorable curriculum that is of interest to students, not just what the teacher is good at or likes Success most of the time High ALT-PE; assessment informs students of learning Grades on achievement  Student oriented conditions Genuine interest in what students want to learn Treated as individuals Environment is supportive, yet challenging

21 Conditions and Consequence Negative  Pain Pushing beyond limits Mental pain by lack of success Exercise as punishment  Anxiety Vague instruction  Frustration Inappropriate progressions  Humiliation Labels, making fun  Boredom Repetition, lack of shared meaning for curriculum

22 Improving Self-Esteem An environment that includes frequent praise will allow students to see through modeling Help students set realistic goals  Set short term goals to meet long term goals Teach students to praise themselves  Encourage positive feedback  Provide opportunities for students to say what they did well Teach students to praise others  Provide opportunities to give praise to peers

23 Promoting affective development How can you increase the chances of a student feeling good about physical education?

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