Presentation on theme: "Domains of Learning tartomány"— Presentation transcript:
1 Domains of Learning tartomány Besides the four basic levels of learning, educational psychologists have developed several additional levels. These classifications consider what is to be learned. Is it knowledge only, a change in attitude, a physical skill, or a combination of knowledge and skill? One of the more useful categorizations of learning objectives includes three domains: cognitive domain (knowledge), affective domain (attitudes, beliefs, and values), and psychomotor domain (physical skills). Each of the domains has a hierarchy of educational objectives.The listing of the hierarchy of objectives is often called a taxonomy.A taxonomy of educational objectives is a systematic classification scheme for sorting learning outcomes into the three broad categories (cognitive, affective, and psychomotor) and ranking the desired outcomes in a developmental hierarchy from least complex to most complex.
2 Cognative DomainThe cognitive domain, described by Dr. Benjamin Bloom, is one of the best known educational domains. It contains additional levels of knowledge and understanding and is commonly referred to as Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives.In aviation, educational objectives in the cognitive domain refer to knowledge which might be gained as the result of attending a ground school, reading about aircraft systems, listening to a preflight briefing, reviewing meteorological reports, or taking part in computer-based training. The highest educational objective level in this domain may also be illustrated by learning to correctly evaluate a flight maneuver, repair an airplane engine, or review a training syllabus for depth and completeness of training. Cognative DomainIn aviation, educational objectives in the cognitive domain refer to knowledge which might be gained as the result of attending a ground school, reading about aircraft systems, listening to a preflight briefing, reviewing meteorological reports, or taking part in computer-based training. The highest educational objective level in this domain may also be illustrated by learning to correctly evaluate a flight maneuver, repair an airplane engine, or review a training syllabus for depth and completeness of training.
3 Affective DomainThe affective domain may be the least understood, and in many ways, the most important of the learning domains. A similar system for specifying attitudinal objectives has been developed by D.R. Krathwohl. Like the Bloom taxonomy, Krathwohl's hierarchy attempts to arrange these objectives in an order of difficulty.Since the affective domain is concerned with a student's attitudes, personal beliefs, and values, measuring educational objectives in this domain is not easy. For example, how is a positive attitude toward safety evaluated? Observable safety-related behavior indicates a positive attitude, but this is not like a simple pass/fail test that can be used to evaluate cognitive educational objective levels. Although a number of techniques are available for evaluation of achievement in the affective domain, most rely on indirect inferences.
4 Psychomotor DomainThere are several taxonomies which deal with the psychomotor domain (physical skills), but none are as popularly recognized as the Bloom and Krathwohl taxonomies. However, the taxonomy developed by E.J. Simpson also is generally acceptable.Psychomotor or physical skills always have been important in aviation. Typical activities involving these skills include learning to fly a precision instrument approach procedure, programming a GPS receiver, or using sophisticated maintenance equipment. As physical tasks and equipment become more complex, the requirement for integration of cognitive and physical skills increases.
7 Adapted from: Bloom, B. S. (Ed *Adapted from: Bloom, B.S. (Ed.) (1956) Taxonomy of educational objectives:The classification of educational goals: Handbook I, cognitive domain. New York ; Toronto: Longmans, Green
8 Evaluation compare and discriminate between ideas assess value of theories, presentationsmake choices based on reasoned argumentverify value of evidencerecognize subjectivityCues: assess, decide, rank, grade, test, measure, recommend, convince, select, judge, explain, discriminate, support, conclude, compare, summarize
9 Note: IPSI uses Bloom's work as modified by Simpson and Kratwold to create three domains: cognitive,psychomotor,and afective.The first, second and fourth levels of Bloom form the cognitive domeain. The third level of Bloom forms the psychomotor domain and the fifth and sixth levels of Bloom form the affective domain. Accordingly, content will be parsed into one of nine categories --- three levels of cognitive, three of psychomotor and three of affective. These nine categories are sufficiently precise so that prescriptions regarding instruction and testing can be aligned with the intent expressed in content goals.Retrieved from "
10 Benjamin Bloomcreated this taxonomy for categorizing levels of abstraction - thus providing a useful structure in which to describe Lesson Plan Components: Interest Approach, Discussion, Presentation, Demonstration, and Test Items. Content Goals start with an active verb. Note the 'Cues' below, which suggest active verbs that may be used when creating Lesson Plan Components.See the Example Lesson Plan.
11 Knowledge observation and recall of information knowledge of dates, events, placesknowledge of major ideasmastery of subject matterCues: list, define, tell, describe, identify, show, label, collect, examine, tabulate, quote, name, who, when, where, etc.
12 Comprehension understanding information grasp meaning translate knowledge into new contextinterpret facts, compare, contrastorder, group, infer causespredict consequencesQuestion Cues: summarize, describe, interpret, contrast, predict, associate, distinguish, estimate, differentiate, discuss, extend
13 Application use information use methods, concepts, theories in new situationssolve problems using required skills or knowledgeCues: apply, demonstrate, calculate, complete, illustrate, show, solve, examine, modify, relate, change, classify, experiment, discover
14 Analysis seeing patterns organization of parts recognition of hidden meaningsidentification of componentsCues: analyze, separate, order, explain, connect, classify, arrange, divide, compare, select, explain, infer
15 Synthesis use old ideas to create new ones generalize from given facts relate knowledge from several areaspredict, draw conclusionsCues: combine, integrate, modify, rearrange, substitute, plan, create, design, invent, what if?, compose, formulate, prepare, generalize, rewrite