Presentation on theme: "Temperature vs. Climate. Also called the Hydrological Cycle The cycle of processes by which water circulates between the Earth’s oceans, atmosphere,"— Presentation transcript:
Also called the Hydrological Cycle The cycle of processes by which water circulates between the Earth’s oceans, atmosphere, and land, involving precipitation as rain and snow, drainage in streams and rivers, and return to the atmosphere by evaporation and transpiration.
Evaporation: is the process by which water is converted from its liquid form to its vapor form (land and water masses the atmosphere. Evaporation from the oceans accounts for 80% of the water delivered as precipitation, with the balance occurring on land, inland waters and plant surfaces. Precipitation: rain, snow, sleet, or hail that falls to the ground. Condensation: water that collects as droplets on a cold surface when humid air is in contact with it. also, the conversion of a vapor gas to a liquid. Runoff: the draining of water (or substances carried in it) from the surface of an area of land, or building or structure.
A thermometer: measures air temperature A barometer: measures air pressure A sling psychrometer: measures relative humidity, sing the cooling effect of evaporation. A rain gauge: measures the amount of rain that has fallen over a specific time period. Wind vane: an instrument that determines the direction from which the wind is blowing.
Anemometer: measures wind speed. Weather maps: indicate atmospheric conditions above a large portion of the Earth’s surface. Hygrometer: measures the water vapor content of air or the humidity Weather balloon: measures weather conditions higher up in the atmosphere. Compass: is a navigational instrument used for finding directions.
Weather Satellites: are used to photograph and track large-scale air movements. Radar (a type of map) like the Doppler Radar or Weather surveillance (WSR) radar It can locate precipitation Calculate its motion And estimate the type (rain, snow, hail, etc) Radars are used to determine a structure of a storm
What are clouds? A cloud is a large collection of very tiny droplets of water or ice crystals. The droplets are so small and light that they can float in the air. Three Main Types of Clouds are: Cirrus (High Clouds) Sub clouds: cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus Alto (Middle Clouds) Sub clouds: altostratus, altocumulus Stratus (Low Clouds) Sub clouds: stratus, stratocumulus, nimbostratus Clouds with vertical growth: Cumulus and cumulonimbus Special Clouds Mammatus, lenticular, fog, contrails
CLOUD TYPES CLOUD IMAGES Cirrus Most common high cloud Composed of ice and are thin Predict fair to pleasant weather. Cirrostratus Thin, sheet-like high clouds that often cover the entire sky They usually occur 12-24 hours before a rain or snow storm Cirrocumulus Appear as small, rounded white puffs that appear in long rows. The resemble fish scales. Usually seen in the winter and indicate fair, but cold weather. In tropical regions, they may indicate an approaching hurricane.
CLOUD TYPES CLOUD IMAGES Altostratus Are gray or blue-gray mid level clouds composed of ice crystals and water droplets. They usually cover the entire sky Usually form ahead of storms with continuous rain or snow Altocumulus Are mid level clouds that are made of water droplets and appear as gray puffy masses. They usually form in groups. If you see these type on a warm, sticky morning, be prepared to see thunderstorms late in the afternoon.
CLOUD TYPES CLOUD IMAGES Stratus are uniform grayish clouds that often cover the entire sky. They resemble fog that doesn't reach the ground. Light mist or drizzle sometimes falls out of these clouds. Stratocumulus low, puffy and gray. Most form in rows with blue sky visible in between them. Rain rarely occurs with stratocumulus clouds, however, they can turn into nimbostratus clouds. Nimbostratus dark gray, wet looking cloudy layer associated with continuously falling rain or snow. They often produce precipitation that is usually light to moderate.
CLOUD TYPES CLOUD IMAGES Cumulus white, puffy clouds that look like pieces of floating cotton. Cumulus clouds are often called "fair-weather clouds". The base of each cloud is flat and the top of each cloud has rounded towers. When the top of the cumulus clouds resemble the head of a cauliflower, it is called cumulus congestus or towering cumulus. These clouds grow upward and they can develop into giant cumulonimbus clouds, which are thunderstorm clouds. Cumulonimbus thunderstorm clouds. High winds can flatten the top of the cloud into an anvil- like shape. Cumulonimbus clouds are associated with heavy rain, snow, hail, lightning and even tornadoes. The anvil usually points in the direction the storm is moving.
Mammatus Drooping cumulonimbus associated with severe weather. Lenticular Caused by a wave wind pattern created by the mountains (looks like a disc or flying saucer. Fog Is a cloud on the ground and is caused by billions of tiny water droplets floating in the air. Contrails Are condensation trails left behind jet aircrafts.
How do meteorologists forecast the weather? Weather forecasting is a prediction of what the weather will be like in an hour, tomorrow, or next week. Weather forecasting involves a combination of computer models, observations, and a knowledge of trends and patterns. By using these methods, reasonable accurate forecasts can be made up to seven days in advance.
Weather symbols are used on my weather maps as shorthand for the conditions at weather observing stations.
WEATHERCLIMATE The difference between weather and climate is a measure of time. Weather is what conditions of the atmosphere are over a short period of time. What is climate? Climate is the average weather usually taken over a 30-year time period for a particular region and time period. Climate is not the same as weather, but rather, it is the average pattern of weather for a particular region. Weather describes the short-term state of the atmosphere.
a map or chart showing weather conditions over a wide are at a particular time, compiled from simultaneous observations at different places. Pressure Maps Station Model Maps Aviation Maps Temperature Maps Streamline Maps