Presentation on theme: "SECTION ONE: PEDAGOGICAL ISSUES Let us start our discussion here by posing two related questions as follows. First, does the literature tell us that a."— Presentation transcript:
SECTION ONE: PEDAGOGICAL ISSUES Let us start our discussion here by posing two related questions as follows. First, does the literature tell us that a new model for online teaching/learning is developing? Second, if the answer to the previous question is positive, what are the unique components of such pedagogy? Specifically, how does online pedagogy further facilitate student learning? Before answering these questions however, it would be helpful if we first re-visit pedagogical issues in general- regardless of whether online or off-line.
Elements of Pedagogy and Principles of Good Teaching. It seems that in general, we can summarize pedagogical activities under three tasks: A. Selection and Packaging (of textbooks and readings, content, order and timing of presentations, time and place for delivery, learning tools and methods, type and nature of student involvement and participation, etc.); B. Administration of the Learning Functions (conducting/delivering class lectures, setting nature of student conduct and contact, etc.); and, C. Assessment (nature, type, timing, etc.).
Implementing Online Pedagogy SITE DESIGN is the first, and most obvious, issue to consider as faculty think about preparing online classes. To prepare a well designed course, both in terms of content and presentation, sets the proper tone for learning online. The three elements of site design that impact pedagogy online especially are visual metaphor, page design, and dynamic HTML. These design elements are not simply adding "eye candy" or gimmicks. Rather these elements can play a central role in organizing information and orienting the reader within a web space.
Visual Metaphor A visual metaphor helps the course designer establish a "presence" on the screen and simultaneously creates coherence within the course by presenting materials in a consistent manner. In my courses, I have chosen a visual metaphor that is appropriate for my subject — the book. All the backgrounds visually play with the idea of an electronic book, a textbook in hypertext. A
SITE NAVIGATION is perhaps the greatest challenge in preparing online delivery of instruction. Hypertext makes it possible to link to virtually any file on any networked computer anywhere in the world. The question any learner might rightly ask is "When do I stop?" Teaching online effectively means that we need to answer that question. There are two levels to think about as we move toward an answer — local linkage and global linkage.
Learning to Learn To help students begin their journey through an online course, in a new learning environment, a little advising is in order. Many institutions help by establishing online student services for distance learners including advice for completing online courses successfully. Such efforts must be complemented by the instructor's efforts to introduce the student to the new learning environment that s/he has prepared. Effective online pedagogy requires such introductory devices as a few pages about how to use the online materials successfully, how to get and use email, hardware/software requirements, and most importantly a "tour" of the course.online student serviceshow to use the online materialshow to get and use email hardware/software requirementsa "tour" of the course
force web designers to use writing as the primary vehicle of communication. Therefore, good writing becomes a central requirement of effective online pedagogy. When teaching online, we have to remain ever cognizant of the differences between speech and writing, between lecturing and preparing online lectures.
Text and text chat,to show emphasis for example. To teach online effectively, therefore, demands that one write well.
The Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education (1987)- effective teaching: 1. encourages student-faculty contact 2. encourages cooperation among students 3. encourages active learning 4. gives prompt feedback 5. emphasizes time on task (gives deadlines) 6. communicates high expectations 7. respects diverse talents and ways of learning.
In order to outline the unique features of online pedagogy, especially as judged against the Seven Principles, it would be helpful to summarize the learning models as follows.
This is described as the traditional, teacher-directed, transmissive, one-way, lecture mode,..., "sage on stage" model and follows the behavioral learning theory;
The Student-Managed Model (SMM) This is the participative, self- directed, active learning,..., "guide on the side" model and follows the cognitive psychology theory. This also best describes online pedagogy.
Let us now examine the changed roles of faculty, learners, and technology under such a model. Faculty: two key roles: A. the traditional pedagogical role: selection and packaging of content- accommodating different learning styles and learner attributes, as well as the knowledge and experience base of learners; B. the increasingly more important facilitator role: frequent engagement, interaction, and feedback by harnessing the power of the WWW.
Key features of online pedagogy can be summarized as follows. 1. asynchronous, and synchronous, participation in the learning process; cooperative learning capability within the "community of learners" environment; 2. unlimited and multi-faceted communication capability; between: a. faculty and students, b. students and students, c. students and outside information/knowledge sources; 3. comprehensive multi-media capability (audio, video, text, graphics,..)- including white board; 4. varied assessment features with linked grade book- providing immediate feedback to learners; 5. unlimited capability to accommodate various learning styles- auditory, visual, kinesthetic, etc.; 6. easy to access personal support (built-in emails to contact instructors, tutors, classmates, outside sources, as well as access to outside links,...) other student-controlled features with much expanded choices for effective student learning. (the SMM)