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National parks 1. Generalities 2. Benefits 3. Landowners’ opposition Banff - Canada.

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Presentation on theme: "National parks 1. Generalities 2. Benefits 3. Landowners’ opposition Banff - Canada."— Presentation transcript:

1 National parks 1. Generalities 2. Benefits 3. Landowners’ opposition Banff - Canada

2 1. Definition In 1969 IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) defined a national park as being a large area having the following characteristics : 1. one/several ecosystem(s) not altered by human exploitation and occupation 2.highest competent authority that prevents exploitation and enforces respect of the aesthetic feature that has been established 3.visiting and tourism are restricted by the park’s authority In 1971 the following criteria have been added : 1.a minimum size of 1000 hectares (10 km 2 ) 2.Statutory legal protection 3.Budget and staff sufficient to provide sufficient effective protection 4.Prohibition of exploitation of natural resources Jasper - Canada Teberdinsky - Russia

3 1. Statistics There are about 3028 recognized national parks. They make up to 10% of Earth’s surface (51 007 200 km 2 ). Australia is the country that hosts the biggest number of national parks. Making up a surface of 335 000 km 2, there are 685 parks in Australia. Kakadu - Australia Uluru-Kata Tjuta - Australia Zion - USA

4 2. Conservation Conservation of biodiversity (the variety of our native species and the ecosystems they form) is the central purpose of protected areas. High levels of biodiversity keep ecosystems healthy and resilient, which means that they continue providing vital ecosystem services such as nutrient cycling, climate regulation, air and water purification and pollination. Protecting biodiversity is vital to safeguard our economy; our cultural, spiritual and aesthetic values; and the intrinsic value of species and ecosystems. Komodo - Indonesia Gauja - Latvia National parks preserve habitats for a wide range of native plants and wildlife. Parks maintain biodiversity and protect endangered species. They provide people with opportunities to learn about natural flora and fauna as well as to explore and admire the beauty of diverse environments.

5 Also, many protected areas provide a water catchment and filtration service, which is important for urban use, agriculture and industry, as well as for native species and ecological processes. Natural areas also play an important role in improving air quality. Undisturbed natural forests are also vital resources because they store large amounts of carbon in their soils and wood. Deforestation and degradation of native forests are major sources of greenhouse gas emissions. 2. Economical Protected Public lands such as national parks can play an important economic role for local communities. Visitation and tourism directly related to national parks can annually contribute millions to regional economies while creating thousands of jobs. In today’s economy the greatest value of natural amenities often lies in the ability of protected lands to attract and retain people, entrepreneurs,their businesses and the growing number of retirees. Kenai Fjords - Alaska Koli - Finland

6 Land owners usually oppose setting up national parks because of the rich reserves of oil and gas that lies beneath their land. All national parks are propriety of the state so landowners won’t sell their lands for public use if there is a natural resources conflict. But there are situations where landowners do sell their land to gas or oil companies. If their land is near a national park or other land that has large amounts of oil and gas, they frack the private land neighboring the one that has the resources to extract the oil and gas. 3. The Opposition fracking Berchtesgaden-Germany Peneda-Gerês - Portugal

7 National Parks in Romania

8 Nature parksNational parks

9 Retezat National Park approximately 100 lakes and over 180 species of birds.

10 Rodna Mountains National Park 46,000 hectares are home to the most impressive relief in Rodna Mountains, many peaks over 2000 meters high, dozens of glacial lakes and rich alpine and subalpine flora and fauna areas feature with various rare species. Fauna is represented by brown bears, deer, lynx, mountain eagles and bison.

11 Danube Delta National Park Delta area is 4152 square kilometers. In continuous consolidation, the Danube Delta is a place favorable to the development of a unique flora and fauna in Europe. There can be distinguished several major ecosystems: rivers, stagnant water, swampy areas and floodplains. There are over 100 species of fish, over 1200 species of plants and about 300 species of birds. Birds in the delta belong to European, Siberian arctic, Mongolian, Chinese and Mediterranean types.

12 The End sources : the Internet Made by Luca Tudor

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