We Care Because: As academics we believe in education and the research process. We want our students to succeed now....and in their future careers [life long learning]. Accreditation agencies ask for proof that students meet the standards.
The Standards Students are expected to have demonstrated levels of proficiency in the five standards adopted by Middle States
The Specifics Standard One: determines the nature & extent of the information needed. [4 performance indicators, 17 outcomes.] Standard Two: accesses needed information effectively & efficiently. [5 performance indicators, 22 outcomes.] Standard Three: evaluates information & its sources critically & incorporates selected information into his or her knowledge base & value system. [7 performance indicators, 25 outcomes.] Standard Four: individually, or as a group member, uses information effectively to accomplish a specific purpose. [3 performance indicators, 10 outcomes.] Standard Five: understands many of the economic, legal and social issues surrounding the use of information & accesses & uses information ethically & legally. [3 performance indicators, 13 outcomes.]
Standard One The student determines the nature & extent of the information needed.
Standard 1.1 Performance indicator Defines and articulates the need for information. Outcomes: 1.a. Choose research topic – works with instructors, class and/or group discussions [virtual/physical] participation. Instructor & course driven. 1.b. Develop research questions. Instructor & course driven. 1.c. Researches general information to become familiar with topic. Instructor/library input. 1.d. Goes broader/narrower for a manageable focus. Instructor/library input. 1.e. Zeroes in on key concepts/terms. Instructor/library input. 1.f. Recognises original thought/experimentation/analysis can use this information to produce something new. Instructor input.
Standard 1.2 Performance Indicator Identifies a variety of information types, formats and sources. Outcomes: 1.2.a.Knows how information is produced & where to access it [print & electronic formats]. 1.2.b Recognises information can be discipline-specific with specialised access [scholarly journals, databases with a subject focus]. 1.2.c. Identifies value & differences of multi-formats for information [media/ print/electronic]. 1.2.d. Recognises purpose & audience of resources [popular/scholarly/ current/historical] 1.2.e. Differentiates between primary & secondary sources & knows their importance to each discipline. 1.2.f. Realizes information may have to be constructed from primary source data. Instructor /library input.
Standard 1.3 Performance Indicator Considers the costs & benefits of acquiring the needed information. Outcomes: 1.3.a.Determines if information available locally & makes decisions about using ILL & other locations, obtaining multimedia, etc. Instructor/library input. 1.3.b. Considers acquiring new language or skill to use & understand information. 1.3.c. Defines realistic plan & timeline for getting information. Instructor/library input. Instructors ask for progress reports.
Standard 1.4 Performance Indicator Re-evaluates the nature & extent of the information needed. Outcomes: 1.4.a. Reviews the initial information to clarify/revise/refine question. Consults with instructor as needed. 1.4.b. Describes criteria used to make information decisions & choices. Writes journal/review of research process.
Standard Two Accesses needed information effectively and efficiently. Incentive for students: you learn how to do this, you’ll complete your assignments faster and with better results.
Standard 2.1 Performance indicator Selects most appropriate investigative methods/ information retrieval systems for accessing needed information. Outcomes: 2.1.a. Identifies how research should be carried out [lab work, simulation, fieldwork, survey, focus group, library research]. Instructor/group input. 2.1.b. Investigates benefits & applicability of various research methods. Instructor/group input. 2.1.c. Investigates scope, content & organization of information retrieval systems. Instructor/Library input. 2.1.d. Selects efficient & effective approaches for accessing needed information from research method or information retrieval systems. Instructor/Library input.
Standard 2.2 Performance Indicator Constructs & implements effectively-designed search strategies. Outcomes: 2.2.a. Develops research plan appropriate to research method. 2.2.b. Identifies keywords, synonyms, related terms for information needed. 2.2.c. Selects controlled vocabulary specific to discipline or information source. 2..2.d. Constructs search strategy appropriate for information source [using and/or/not, truncation, proximity, book indices, etc.] 2.2.e. Implements search strategy in various systems with different interfaces/search engines & search protocol. 2.2.f. Searches using discipline-appropriate research protocols. Instructor/library input.
Standard 2.3 Performance Indicator Retrieves information online or in person using variety of methods. Outcomes: 2.3.a. Uses various search systems to retrieve information in variety of formats. 2.3.b. Uses various classification schemes & other systems [call numbers/indices] to find library resources or other sites for physical exploration [is it a book, article, etc.?]. 2.3.c. Uses specialised online/in person services to retrieve information [ILL, document delivery, community resources, experts, etc.] 2.3.d. Uses surveys, letters, interviews, other inquiry methods to retrieve primary information. Instructor/library input.
Standard 2.4 Performance Indicator Refines the search strategy if necessary. Outcomes: 2.4.a. Assesses quantity, quality & relevance of search results to see if further research needs to be carried out. Instructor/library input. 2.4.b. Identifies gaps in retrieved information to see if research strategy should be revised. Instructor/library input. 2.4.c. Repeats search with revised strategy if necessary. Library input.
Standard 2.5 Performance Indicator Extracts, records and manages the information and its sources. Outcomes: 2.5.a. Selects most appropriate technology for collecting information [copy/paste, photocopier, scanner, media equipment, etc.] 2.5.b. Creates information organization system. 2.5.c. Differentiates between source type [journal/book/website, etc.] & understands citation requirements. 2.5.d. Records all citation information for future reference. 2.5.e. Uses various technologies to manage selected & organized information. Instructor/library input.
Standard Three Evaluates information and its sources critically and incorporates selected information into knowledge base and value system.
Standard 3.1 Performance Indicator Summarizes main ideas to be extracted from information. Outcomes: 3.1.a. Reads text and selects main ideas. 3.1.b. Restates concepts/ideas in own words & selects accurate information. 3.1.c. Quotes verbatim material appropriately. Instructor/library input on plagiarism issues.
Standard 3.2 Performance Indicator Articulates and applies initial criteria for evaluating information and its sources. Outcomes: 3.2.a. Examines & compares information from various sources to evaluate reliability, validity, accuracy, authority, timeliness, point of view/bias, etc. 3.2.b. Analyzes structure & logic of supporting arguments/methods. 3.2.c. Recognizes prejudice, deception, manipulation. 3.2.d. Recognizes cultural, physical, other contexts within which information was created & understands context impact on information interpretation. Instructor input.
Standard 3.3 Performance Indicator Synthesizes main ideas to construct new concepts. Outcomes: 3.3.a. Recognizes interrelationships among concepts & combines them into potentially useful primary statements with supporting evidence. 3.3.b. Extends initial synthesis, if possible, to a higher abstraction level to construct new hypotheses that may require additional information. 3.3.c. Uses computer & other technologies [e.g., spreadsheets, databases, multimedia, a/v equipment] to study interaction of ideas & other phenomena. Instructor input.
Standard 3.4 Performance Indicator Compares new knowledge with prior knowledge to determine value added, contradictions or other unique characteristics of the information. Outcomes: 3.4.a. Determines whether information satisfies research/information need. 3.4.b. Uses consciously selected criteria to determine whether information contradicts or verifies information from other sources. 3.4.c. Draws conclusions based on information. 3.4.d. Tests theories with discipline-appropriate techniques [e.g., simulators, experiments]. 3.4.e. Determines probable accuracy by questioning data source, limitations of research tools/strategies & reasonableness of conclusions. 3.4.f. Integrates new information with previous information/knowledge. 3.4.g. Selects information providing evidence for research topic. Instructor input.
Standard 3.5 Performance Indicator Determines whether the new knowledge has an impact on their value system and takes steps to reconcile differences. Outcomes: 3.5.a. Investigates differing viewpoints encountered. 3.5.b. Determines whether or not to incorporate viewpoints. Instructor input.
Standard 3.6 Performance Indicator Validates understanding and interpretation of information through discussions with individuals, subject experts & practitioners. Outcomes: 3.6.a. Participates in classroom and other discussions.. 3.6.b. Participates in course-related electronic communication [e.g., e- mail/bulletin boards/chat rooms]. 3.6.c. Seeks expert opinion [e.g., interviews, e-mail, listservs]. Instructor input.
Standard 3.7 Performance Indicator Determines whether initial inquiry should be revised. Outcomes: 3.7.a. Determines if original information need has been satisfied or if more information is needed. Instructor input. 3.7.b. Reviews search strategy & incorporates additional concepts if needed. Instructor/library input. 3.7.c. Reviews information retrieval sources and expands if needed. Instructor/library input.
Standard Four Uses information, individually or as group member, effectively to accomplish a specific purpose.
Standard 4.1 Performance Indicator Applies new & prior information to planning & creating a particular product or performance. Outcomes: 4.1.a. Organizes content so it supports purposes & format of product/performance [e.g., outlines/drafts/storyboards]. 4.1.b. Articulates knowledge & skills gained from prior experiences to planning & creating new product/performance. 4.1.c. Integrates new & prior information, including quotations & paraphrasings, to support purposes of product/performance. 4.1.d. Manipulates digital text, images & data, transferring from original locations/formats to a new context. Instructor Input.
Standard 4.2 Performance Indicator Revises the development process for the product or performance. Outcomes: 4.2.a. Maintains log/journal related to information seeking, evaluating and communicating process. Instructor input. 4.2.b. Reflects on past successes, failures & alternative strategies. Instructor input. Share with library so library’s teaching strategies can be revised.
Standard 4.3 Performance Indicator Communicates the product or performance effectively to others. Outcomes: 4.3.a. Chooses communication format that supports best product/performance and audience. Instructor input. 4.3.b. Use range of information technology applications in creating product/performance. Instructor/library input. 4.3.c. Incorporates principles of design & communication. Instructor input. 4.3.d. Communicates clearly and in a style that supports purposes of the intended audience. Instructor input.
Standard Five Understands many of the economic, legal and social issues surrounding the use of information and accesses and uses information ethically and legally.
Standard 5.1 Performance Indicator Understands many of the ethical, legal and socio-economic issues surrounding information and information technology. Outcomes: 5.1.a. Identifies& discusses privacy & security issues in both print & electronic environments. Instructor/library input. 5.1.b. Identifies & discusses free vs. fee-based information access [web vs. databases]. Instructor/library input. 5.1.c. Identifies & discusses issues related to censorship & freedom of speech. Instructor input. 5.1.d. Demonstrates understanding of intellectual property, copyright & fair use of copyrighted material. Instructor/library input.
Standard 5.2 Performance Indicator Follows laws, regulations, institutional policies & etiquette related to access and use of information resources. Outcomes: 5.2.a. Participates in electronic discussions using accepted practices [Netiquette]. 5.2.b. Uses approved passwords, etc. for information access. 5.2.c. Complies with institutional policies on information access. 5.2.d. Preserves integrity of information resources, equipment, systems & facilities. 5.2.e. Legally obtains, stores & disseminates text/data/images/sound. 5.2.f. Demonstrates understanding of plagiarism & does not plagiarise. 5.2.g. Demonstrates understanding of institutional policies related to human subjects research. Instructor input.
Standard 5.3 Performance Indicator Acknowledges the use of information sources in communicating the product or performance. Outcomes: 5.3.a. Selects an appropriate citation style and uses it consistently. Instructor input. 5.3.b. Posts permission granted notices, as needed, for copyright material. Instructor input.
Assignment Checklist Does assignment ask/encourage students to: articulate a research question, issue or problem? make multiple and different determinations about sources necessary to complete the research? conduct research through electronic and book-based data retrieval systems? make selections from, integrate, and synthesize information retrieved in their search? analyze and evaluate the credibility of the information retrieved? utilize computer literacy skills to communicate their research discoveries? demonstrate an understanding of fair use of copyrighted material and intellectual property? develop long-term, adaptable, cross-disciplinary research skills? [Sonntag & Curry, CSU San Marcos, 1998-1999]
Suggestions for Successful Assignments Give students assignments’ learning objectives. Clarify requirements & expectations in writing & verbally. Give specifics in writing– citation style, scholarly resources only, no googling, anything goes, etc. Check to see if library’s resources are adequate, if not ensure students know about alternate sources & see if library can buy more. Don’t assume they know the basics. Allow variety in topics. Foster critical thinking by developing assignments integrating information from variety of sources. Allow project to progress throughout course with instructor feedback. Get to know your reference/instruction librarians; share your syllabi.
The Evidence of a More Thoughtful Approach Bibliographies Databases used Search statements Research journals Portfolios of drafts
Progress Students will move from : broad, general reference sources to specialised, subject specific tools. using textbooks/overviews to specialised subject material. simple Google searches to more sophisticated use of Google & other search engines. using “first three hits” to carefully evaluated sources. broad, general topics to more specialised but researchable projects. simply stated search queries to well-formulated search statements. “copy & paste” mentality to reading, analysing, synthesizing & interpreting information.