2 Class Outline Key tools and Terms of Economics: Economics, microeconomics and macroeconomics.Economic Problem: Scarcity and Choice.Two Big Economic Questions.Goods and Services.Circular-Flow Model
3 Key Tools & Terms of Economics A social science that studies how people use their scarce resources to satisfy their unlimited wants.It has tow major branches: Microeconomics and Macroeconomics.
4 Key Tools & Terms of Economics Microeconomics:The study of choices that individuals and business make and the way they choices interact in markets and are influenced by governments.Macroeconomics:The study of the aggregate effects on the national economy and the global economy of the choices that individuals , business and governments make.
5 Key Tools & Terms of Economics Economic Problem:Basic economic problem is wants are virtually unlimited while the resources available to satisfy these wants are scarce.Scarcity:Our inability to satisfy all our wants.Human and property resources are scarce, hence the goods and services we produce must be limited.Choices:The poor and rich alike face scarcity, so they must MAKE CHOICES.
6 Key Tools & Terms of Economics HBC608ECON582HBC608HBC608Key Tools & Terms of EconomicsTwo Big Economic QuestionsQ1. How choices determine what, how, and for whom goods and services get produced?Q2. When do choices made in self-interest also promote the social interest ?Finance NotesFinance notesFinance notes6
7 Key Tools & Terms of Economics What Do We Produce?We divide the vast array of goods and services produced into:Consumption goods and servicesCapital goodsGovernment goods and servicesExport goods and services
8 Key Tools & Terms of Economics Consumption goods and servicesGoods and services that are bought by individuals and used to provide personal enjoyment and contribute to a person’s standard of living.Capital goodsGoods that are bought by businesses to increase their productive resources.
9 Key Tools & Terms of Economics Government goods and servicesGoods and services that are bought by governments. Examples are missiles, bridges, and police protection.Export goods and servicesGoods and services produced in one country and sold in other countries. Examples are airplanes produced by Boeing and Citicorp banking services sold to China.
10 Key Tools & Terms of Economics How Do We Produce?Factors of productions are the productive resources used to produce goods and services. Factors of production are grouped into four categories:LandLaborCapitalEntrepreneurship
11 Key Tools & Terms of Economics LandIt does not refer only a plots of ground but also includes all other natural resources such as crude oil, water, air, and minerals etc.LaborIt is not simply the number of human bodies but it refers to the work time and work effort that people devote to producing goods and services. It categorized into two parts– physical and mental.
12 Key Tools & Terms of Economics CapitalIn economics the term capital refers to final goods produced for use in further production. It also categorized into two parts. These are:Physical capital: factories, machines, tools, buildings, airports, highways and other manufactured items employed to produce goods and services.Human capital: consists of the knowledge and skill people acquire to enhance their labor productivity.
13 Key Tools & Terms of Economics Entrepreneurial Ability:Special kind of human skillTalent required to dream up a new product or find a better way to produce an existing one.
14 Key Tools & Terms of Economics For Whom Do We Produce?Factors of production are paid incomes:Rent Income paid for the use of land.Wages Income paid for the services of labor.Interest Income paid for the use of capital.Profit (or loss) Income earned by an entrepreneur for running a business.
15 Key Tools & Terms of Economics Choices made in self-interest also promote the social interest?Choices that are the best for the individuals who makes them are choices made in the pursuit of self-interestChoices that are the best for society as a whole are said to be in the social interest
16 Key Tools & Terms of Economics Goods and Services:Goods are:Tangible itemsRequire scarce resourcesSatisfy human wantsServices are:Intangible items
17 Circular-Flow ModelCircular-Flow Model is a model of the economy that shows the circular flow of expenditure and income that result from decision makers’ choices and the way those choices interact to determine what, how and for whom goods and services are produced.
18 Circular-Flow ModelHouseholds: Individuals and group of people living together. They own the factors of production.As owners, they supply labor, capital, land, and entrepreneurship to firms.As consumers, households demand the goods and services produced.Firms: Institutions that organize the production of goods and services.Demand the factors of production.Supply the goods and services.
19 Circular-Flow ModelMarkets: Any arrangement that bring buyers and sellers together and enable them to get information and do business with each other.Goods markets: Markets in which goods and services are exchanged (bought and sold).Factors Markets: Markets in which the services of factors of production are exchanged (bought and sold). Labor, or job, market is the most important of the resource markets.
20 ECON582HBC608HBC608HBC608Circular-Flow ModelHouseholds supply resources in the factor markets and demand goods and services in the goods market.Goods and services boughtsuppliedFirms supply goods and services in goods market and demand resources in the factor marketRent, wages, interest, and profitExpenditure on goods and servicesMoney flows in factor market determines wages (labor), interest (capital), rents (land), and profits (entrepreneurship) which flow as income to householdsFactor markets determine the prices for goods and services which flow as revenue to firmsLabor, land, capital, entrepreneurship hiredGoods and services suppliedFinance notesFinance NotesFinance notes20
21 Circular-Flow Model Real Flows: The services of factors of production that go from households through factor markets to firms.The goods and services that go from firms through goods markets to households.Money Flows:The income earned by the factors of production.The expenditure on goods and services.
22 Circular-Flow Model Governments Governments are divided into two broad levels:Federal GovernmentState and local government
23 Circular-Flow Model Federal Government The federal government’s major expenditures are to provideGoods and services (including legal system and national defense).Social Security and welfare benefits (including income for retired people and transfers to households)Transfers to state and local governments
24 Circular-Flow ModelThe federal government finances its expenditures by collecting taxes. The main taxes are1. Personal income taxes2. Corporate (business) taxes3. Social Security taxes
25 Circular-Flow Model State and Local Governments State and local governments expenditures provideGoods and services (including police, schools, roads…etc)Welfare benefits (including unemployment benefits)State and local governments finance these expenditures by collecting taxes. The main taxes levied areSales taxesProperty taxesState income taxes
26 Circular-Flow Model Governments In the Circular Flow Households and firms paytaxes and receive transfers.Governments buy goodsand services from firms.
27 ReferenceChapter 1-3 “Foundations of Macroeconomics”: for circular-flow model see pages.48-51
28 Now it’s over for today. Any question? HBC608ECON582HBC608HBC608Now it’s over for today.Any question?Finance NotesFinance notesFinance notes28