Hebrew Religion = Judaism Hebrews = Jews Founder = Abraham Abraham lived in the Mesopotamian city of Ur and was a shepherd. According to the Torah, God told Abraham to move his people to Canaan (“The Promised Land”) Torah = book containing the records and beliefs of Hebrews. (first five books of the Bible/Old Testament) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fertile_Crescent Ur Canaan
The Hebrew’s Religion - Judaism Monotheistic – believed in 1 god. They called their god Yahweh and proclaimed he was the one and only God. God was not a physical being, so no images were to be made of him. God made covenants with his people. Covenant = promise made between God and his people (typically God promises to protect and people promise to follow.)
Moses Famine and drought led to the relocation of the Hebrews into Egypt. Over time, the Egyptians began to persecute and enslave the Hebrews. The Hebrews fled Egypt in an event called the “Exodus”. (~1300-1200 B.C.) Their leader = Moses http://www.wga.hu/art/r/reni/1/moses.jpg
After the Exodus Moses delivers the people from Egypt and it’s pharoah (Ramses II). Moses, according to Hebrew tradition, given the Ten Commandments. After the Jews wander in the desert for forty years, Moses dies and Joshua leads the Hebrews into the promised land.
Hebrew History from the Exodus Jews organized into 12 tribes. Live in Canaan and frequently fight with neighbors over land. United from time to time under Judges. Become very powerful under 3 kings (Saul, David, Solomon). (1020-922 B.C.) Kingdom divides under Solomon (Israel to North, Judah (where both Judaism and Jew comes from) to South) http://www.hyperhistory.com/online_n2/images_n2/judah.gif
Hebrew History from the Exodus (cont’d.) Israel is conquered by the Assyrians in 722. The Babylonians will conquer Judah nearly 140 years later. Israelites are exiled. Exile = period after Babylonian conquests where many Jews are forced to leave Jerusalem and to live in Babylon. Diaspora = the scattering of the Jews after the Babylonian Captivity. http://www.hyperhistory.com/online_n2/images_n2/judah.gif
Hebrew History (Cont’d.) Judaism Monotheistic – One true God is present everywhere God made a covenant with Abraham God chose Hebrews as his people. God gave the Hebrews the Ten Commandments through Moses The Torah is the sacred Recording of laws and Events in Jewish history, Prophets taught about Moral Standards and justice.
Reflection What makes the Hebrews so important to world history?